DO NOW: GET OUT UR NTBKz NAME (5) GREAT INVENTIONS / TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPED BY THE MESOPOTAMIANS Find the city @ 15N, 121E P.R11
DO NOW: GET OUT UR NTBKz PICK UP VIEWING GUIDE (UNDER TUT) FIND THE CITY @: 66N, 21W (Doc. “B”; P. R9) PICK UP Mr. BURSTEIN-- OPEN HIM TO P. 54 FOCUS: LOOK FOR EVIDENCE THAT MESOPOTAMIA WAS A DEVELOPING CIVILIZATION.
MESOPOTAMIA land between two rivers 1ST CITIES APPEAR CIRCA 3,500 B.C.E. ---2,000 B.C.E.
CIVILIZATION OF MESOPOTAMIA LIST TWO (2) POSITIVE ASPECTS OF MESOPOTAMIA’S LOCATION LIST TWO (2) NEGITIVE ASPECTS OF MESOPOTAMIA’S LOCATION 40ºN 35ºN 20oN 40ºE 55ºE 20ºE
A NOMADS TO FARMERS
C JUST HOW DID MAN END UP IN MESOPOTAMIA? I WANDER HOW? HUMMM? NOMADIC MIGRATION LOOK'N FOR WATER!
THE RIVERS SUPPORTED LIFE DEFINE: DOMESTICATION of ANIMALS: > ANIMALS ADAPTED TO LIVING WITH MAN >SERVE A PURPOSE, IE F O O D!!! YUMMMMMMMM THE ANCIENT SUMERIAN BURGER—”FOOD OF THE GODS”
Geography MESOPOTAMIA MEANS ? • THE LAND BETWEEN 2 RIVERS PART OF THE FERTILE CRESCENT • WHAT MAKES THE LAND FERTILE? • “FLOOD MUD”; FROM THOSE SNOWY MOUNTAINS • TIGRIS RIVER • EUPHRATES RIVER NAME THE 2 RIVERS
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION FIRST SETTLERS; c. 8,000 BC FARMING STARTS; c. 7,OOO BC • HOW DID MAN LEARN TO FARM? • TRIAL & ERROR • OBSERVATION • WHAT WERE THE FIRST CROPS? • WHEAT & BARLEY
1 AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY
HIGH TECH AGRICULTURE LEVEE- • EARTH WALL, HOLDS BACK WATER IRRIGATION- • CANALS THAT BRING WATER TO THE FIELDS • SUMARIAN PLOW
HIGH TECH THE WHEELS ON THE CART GO ROUND AND ROUND 6,000 BC Sumerian big wheel 2,000 AD
THE CIRCLE • 360º • 1º= 60 MINUTES 1-MIN= 60 SECONDS THE COMPASS ROSE
TIME • 1st CALENDAR • 12 MONTHS • 30 DAYS PER MONTH • WHEN THE PASSAGE OF YEARS MADE THE CALENDAR INACCURATE, THEY ADDED A 13th MONTH TO GET BACK IN LINE WITH THE SEASONS
BABYLONIANS ADVANCED SUMERIAN LEARNING DEFINE: ASTRONOMY STUDY OF HEAVENLY BODIES ASTROLOGY AN ATTEMPT TO USE THE POSITION OF THE STARS TO PREDICT HUMAN EVENTS CONSTELLATIONS >GROUPS OF STARS >HAVE A SPECIAL NAME
MESOPOTAMIANS IN OUR LIVES
A HOROSCOPESPREDICTIONS FOR THE FUTURE • The Zodiac ("Circle of Animals") is the name given to the band of the ecliptic encircling the earth. It is like a belt in space, about 15 degrees wide, across which the planets move and form their geometrical relationships. The Zodiac forms the stellar backdrop for the apparent path of the Sun, called the plane of the ecliptic. Astrologers divide the circle of the ecliptic into twelve parts, each subdivided into 30 degrees, making 360 degrees in all. The twelve divisions are called the Signs of the Zodiac. These signs are related (but not exactly identical) to the constellations (star groups) of the same name
the ZODIAC • The Zodiac is made up of 12 different sun signs. Your date of birth determines which one you are. Click your sign below for complete detailed information on your sign: • Aries - March 21 - April 20 • Taurus - April 21 - May 21 • Gemini - May 22 - June 21 • Cancer - June 22 - July 22 • Leo - July 23 -August 21 • Virgo - August 22 - September 23 • Libra - September 24 - October 23 • Scorpio - October 24 - November 22 • Sagittarius - November 23 - December 22 • Capricorn - December 23 - January 20 • Aquarius - January 21 - February 19 • Pisces - February 20- March 20 PREDICTION- EVEN YOU WILL GET A DATE SOME DAY!!!!
WRITING DEFINE: • SCRIBE • DUDE(ETTE) WHO CAN WRITE • STYLUS • THE EARLY BIC PEN! • USED TO MAKE WEDGE SHAPES • CUNEIFORM • “stylus ized” crazy wedge shaped writing of the Sumerians • STARTED AS PICTOGRAPHS
What were the first and final steps in the development of writing? Why do you think, only scribes could write?
Sumerian Writing • Oldest written language • Started as pictographs • Scribes and their tools • Changed to wedge-shaped symbols (cuneiform)
CUNEIFORM CLAY TABLET 2000 AD 2,000 bce NOTICE! THE CLAY HAS BEEN "IN"SCRIBED WEDGES MADE BY A REALLY COOL SCRIBE
Working with Cuneiform • Task: Using the chart that is infront of you and the Cuneiform inscription handout, translate and follow what is written on the handout
Making a Clay Cuneiform Tablet • Task: Using the chart that is in front of you and any tools that are located in this room, you are to write your NAME in cuneiform on the clay tablet. MAKE SURE YOU PAY ATTENTION TO DETAILS AND WRITE NEATLY!!!!!
King Gilgamesh popular hero 2500 BC-1st recorded story part human, part god strongest most powerful person explains society's values flood story
Sumerian Legends • Helped explain things • Passed down orally • Later recorded onto clay tablets
ziggurat SUMARIAN TEMPLE What in the world? BUILDING MATERIAL? MUD BRICKS
SOCIAL CLASSES • NOBLES (2 story homes, close to ziggurat) • KING • PRIESTS • GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS • MERCHANTS / ARTISENS (1 story homes) • Specialized jobs • PEASANTS –FARMERS / LABORERS • SLAVES (captured or in debt)
& PRIESTS KINGS
RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATION 7 great gods POLYTHEISM represent natural forces city-states have their own special god
A RELIGIOUS PRACTICE ATTENTION SUMERIANS! BARTER OR SHELLS ACCEPTED GET YOUR Prayer statues Made IN YOUR LIKENESS Leave in ziggurat—”theY pray while youplay!” SORRY: ONLY PRIESTS MAY ENTER THE TEMPLE
WHY IT IS GOOD TO BE A god ? McDEEZ GOD of FOOD FOOD OF THE gods 2 TIMES DAILY OWN THE LAND & ALL ON IT PRIESTS THEN SHARE WITH THE PEOPLE PEOPLE GIVE ALL TO YOU! PEOPLE DO COOL CEREMONIES FOR YOU A FREE HOME
RESIDENCE OF THE gods ONLY PRIESTS ALLOWED! OFFICES FOR THE KING & PRIESTS WHAT HAPPENS IF FLOOD WATER HITS THE TEMPLE’S MUD BRICKS? ARE YOU READY? ARE YOU SURE? ZIGGA ROT YOU GET!
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION KING GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS PRIESTS SCRIBES
THE KING: MAKES LAWS DUTIES DUTIES CONTROLS TRADE DECIDES WHO FARMS UP-KEEP OF THE TEMPLES INSURE THE CORRECT OFFERINGS ARE MADE DIAGRAM DESIGNED BY: –ZIG E. RAUT
HOW THE KING PROVIDES SERVICES SUPPORT THE KING & PRIESTS TAXES PAY FOR REPAIRS BURDEN TAX--MALES REQUIRED TO PROVIDE SERVICE PUT ON EVERYTHING (EVEN FUNERALS)