Animal, Plant & Soil Science Lesson C5-8 Managing Animal Health PPT: APSR: C5-8 E-Unit: 010089
Interest Approach • Bring in a pair of tattooing pliers and show the class. Write a number on the board that would be used in tattooing cattle (e.g., A24 or B56). Have the students attempt to write the number backwards on a sheet of paper. Ask one student to put the numbers in the tattooing pliers. Have the student with the pliers press the tattoo onto a sheet of paper. Compare the results an the paper. Ask other students to try to tattoo the correct number on the paper.
Objectives • Identify good animal health management practices. • Discuss beneficial record keeping programs for dairy. • Explain common maintenance needs to promote animal health. • Describe identification possibilities for various animals.
branding castrating dehorning docking earmarks heat mastitis tattooing Terms
What are good health management practices? • Every type of animal needs specific management practices for good health. • There are some broad similarities between some species and breeds. • It is better to prevent problems before they occur. • Many of the same management practices can be used for all animals.
What are good health management practices? • A. Always make sure that you purchase your animals from a reputable person. • If you start out with healthy animals, it will be less expensive and less stressful. • If you start out with infected animals, you may deal with the problem for a very long time.
What are good health management practices? • B. Obtain animals only if you have a specific use for them in mind. • Bringing in new animals always presents some risk of introduction of disease and other problems. • If you are not committed to completing the necessary paperwork, do not buy animals that will require it for proper health records. • C. Clean and disinfect all areas before bringing animals into an area.
What are good health management practices? • D. Ensure that all animals are fed properly. • Many problems can be avoided with proper nutrition. • E. Keep animals out of weather that they do not tolerate well, in order to avoid illnesses and discomfort. • F. Keep track of sexual maturity of animals so that they are not bred at the wrong time or to the wrong mate.
What are good health management practices? • G. Monitor animals daily so that you are aware of what is normal and will notice when anything is not normal. • H. Dispose of dead animals properly to avoid further infection. • I. Separate sick animals from healthy animals until you are positive the disease or parasite under control. • J. Call a veterinarian for any situation beyond the control of the owner or manager.
What records should be kept to encourage good animal healthwith dairy animals? • Animals have specific record keeping needs, depending on the species or breed, to encourage good health. • Dairy animals require more paperwork than most. • The breeding program of a dairy is essential to the success of the business. • Common ailments in dairy cattle can be tracked and avoided with proper records of herd health.
What records should be kept to encourage good animal healthwith dairy animals? • A. Records of dairy animals are done on an individual basis. • Each cow is monitored for pregnancy, production, and milk quality. • Milking dairy cows two to three times each day at consistent times helps maintain health. • Studies show that milking more frequently decreases mastitis and seems to improve general udder health. • Mastitis is an infection of the milk-secreting glands.
What records should be kept to encourage good animal healthwith dairy animals? • B. Detailed records of breeding programs should be kept, including heat detection and heat cycles. • Heat describes the time in a cow’s estrus cycle when she can get pregnant. • Breeding records will help to determine if there is a reproductive problem with the animal.
What records should be kept to encourage good animal healthwith dairy animals? • C. Good animal health requires keeping track of growth and mortality rates. • By logging this information, you may notice patterns that can be addressed.
What records should be kept to encourage good animal healthwith dairy animals? • D. Keeping records of genetic information is beneficial. • There might be undesirable traits that are passed on to new generations. • Genetic records can also be used to show that an animal has quality offspring. • E. Pregnancy records need to be maintained.
Simple maintenance can help to promote animal health. • Proper management of common maintenance tasks can save time and money in the animal business. • Many of these practices can be performed by, or with the help of, a veterinarian. • Proper timing is the key to successful maintenance. • Some maintenance practices are discussed here.
Simple maintenance can help to promote animal health. • A. Dehorning of animals is common to ensure that the animals do not hurt each other, themselves, or humans. • Dehorning is the removal of horns by use of chemicals, hot irons, saws, or other means. • There are several methods of dehorning. • A person should always make sure to have the proper knowledge and equipment before dehorning an animal.
Simple maintenance can help to promote animal health. • B. Castrating is removing the testicles from male animals so they cannot breed. • Often males are less aggressive and easier to handle after being castrated. • C. Docking of tails is a common practice for piglets and lambs. • Docking is the term used to describe removing the animal’s tail.
Simple maintenance can help to promote animal health. • D. Bedding animals is a very important health management practice. • Animals that have clean, dry bedding are less likely to be sick from parasites, diseases, drafts, cold, and so on. • Using the proper kind and amount of bedding is essential.
Simple maintenance can help to promote animal health. • E. Removal of manure and urine is necessary. • Many diseases are passed through feces. • Removing the feces will decrease the occurrence of contamination. • F. The animal facility should be kept free of rats, birds, and other animals that spread diseases.
Healthy Environments for Animals • Good sanitation is important to good health • Factors related to good sanitation • Keeping facilities and animals clean • Use of clean equipment • Feeders, milking equip, breeding equip, needles & syringes, surgical equip • Syringe – an instrument used for giving injections or to draw body fluids
Healthy Environments for Animals • Disinfectants should be used when cleaning equipment & facilities • Disinfectants – material that kills disease causing organisms • Housing • Should be clean & free of cold drafts • Good air circulation to help lower tem & reduce humidity • Avoid dry & dusty conditions • Proper Maintenance of facilities
Healthy Environments for Animals • Handling Manure • Piles of manure are often sources of poor health • Manure attracts flies which may lead to disease • Excessive manure can lead to poor air quality • May reduce rates of gain • May lead to feet & leg problems in feedlots • Feedlots – areas in which large numbers of animals are grown for food
Healthy Environments for Animals • Controlling Pests • Control of pests & parasites • Regular use of disinfectants to control parasites such as lice and flies prevents disease. • Prevention is preferable to controlling outbreaks • Control of birds & wild animals • Many birds carry parasites on their bodies and in their droppings
Healthy Environments for Animals • Wild animals and pets may also cause serious health problems when allowed to roam freely around farm animals. • Bites from the animals may cause infection • Pets around farm animals may cause the animals to be nervous and may affect how they grow and produce.
Healthy Environments for Animals • Isolation • Keeping new animals apart is good prevention • Recommended to keep new animals isolated for a minimum of 30 days for observation • May want to isolate animals returning to farm • Animals with contagious diseases should not be in contact with healthy animals. • It is difficult to treat unhealthy animals in large groups • Healthy animals tend to pick on unhealthy ones
Healthy Environments for Animals • It is important to rotate pastures in which animals roam • Many diseases of animals are harbored in the soil and are killed only by not being able to come into contact with host animals for extended time periods • Host Animal – animal in or on which diseases or parasites can live. • Moving animals to different pastures on a regular basis allows for the breakdown of animal waste and for pasture regrowth.
Diseases • 2 Major categories of disease. • Contagious – those that can be passed on to other animals. • Non-Contagious- disease cannot be spread to other animals • Animals with contagious disease must be isolated as soon as the disease is identified.
Diseases • Humans must be careful in handling infected animals because some diseases can be transmitted to humans • Humans handling animals should become familiar with the proper techniques, vaccinations, and precautions to avoid disease and parasitic infection
Diseases • Causes of Diseases • Contagious diseases are caused mostly by bacteria & viruses. • Can be spread by direct contact, shared housing , or contaminated feed or water • Can be spread by birds, rodents, or insects • Non-contagious may be caused by nutrient deficiencies or nutrient excess • Poisonous plants & animals, injection of foreign material, and open wounds may cause disease.
Parasites • Symptoms • Poor growth reduced production • Reduced feed intake rough, dry hair coat • Discharge from nose or eyes • Coughing or gasping trembling or shivering • Unusual discharges open sores or wournds • Unusual swelling, lumps, and knots • Abortion • Peculiar gait or other odd movements • Some diseases have little or no external symptoms that occur.
Parasites • Two types of parasites • Internal – inside the animal • External – living on the outside of the animal • Types of Internal Parasites • Roundworms – slender worms that are tapered on both ends • Flukes – very small, flat worms • Protozoa – microscopic one celled organisms
Parasites • Most internal parasites spend some of their life-cycle outside the host animal • During this period the parasite may most easily be spread. • Contact with discharges from infected animals, contaminated feed, water, housing, or secondary hosts may cause the spread of internal parasites • Secondary Host – a plant or animal that carries a disease or parasite during part of the life cycle of that disease or parasite • May be spread by insects – mosquitoes and flies
Parasites • External Parasites – include flies, ticks, mites, & fleas
Parasites • Symptoms of parasitic infection • Poor growth diarrhea or bloody feces • Weight loss worms in feces • Constant coughing and gagging • Anemia swelling under neck • Lowered production & reproduction • Poor stamina loss of hair and mange • Mange– presence of crusty skin condition caused by mites • Visibility of parasite itself
Preventing & Treating Animal Health Problems • Procedures for preventing and treating • Administering drugs • Dipping • Restraining animals • Feed additives • Vaccination • - injection of an agent into an animal to prevent disease
Preventing & Treating Animal Health Problems • Factors to be considered before administering drugs. • Determine the amount to be administered • Type of drug to use • Purpose of the drug • Site of administration of the drug • Type of animal to be treated
Preventing & Treating Animal Health Problems • Most information can be found on the drug container. • Must follow the manufacturer’s recommendations closely • It is important to consider the amount of time the drug will remain in the body. • Important in determining how long milk or meat will be contaminated • Must be determined how long to wait before treated animals or product can be slaughtered or sold.
Preventing & Treating Animal Health Problems • Forms that drugs may come in • Pills • Force pill as far down the side of the mouth as possible using hand or balling gun. • Balling Gun – a device used to place a pill in the animals throat
Preventing & Treating Animal Health Problems • Forms that drugs may come in • Powders • Normally mixed in feed or water • May need to withhold feed or water before administering drug • Dipping – a process for treating animals, mostly cattle & sheep, for external parasites • Involves a vat with medicated water and forcing the animals to walk or swim through it. • May be used with dogs for ticks and fleas • Popular when large numbers of animals must be completely covered with medication
Preventing & Treating Animal Health Problems • Taking Temperatures • Usually taken in the rectum • Animal thermometers are normally longer & heavier • Should have string attached • Coat the thermometer with sterile jelly. • Determine Pulse and Respiration Rates • Pulse rate taken by holding ear to animals chest and listening to heartbeat • Respiration rate taken by watching rib cage move
Preventing & Treating Animal Health Problems • Restraining Animals • Head gates Nose leads • Squeeze Chutes Casting harnes • Halters Snares • Twitches • Vaccination • Prevention of disease is nearly always less expensive than treating animals once they have disease • Vaccination is the injection of an agent into an animal to prevent disease. • The agent causes the animal’s body to become immune to the disease • Immune – means not affected by something
Preventing & Treating Animal Health Problems • Feed Additives • Used primarily to control the incidence of low level infections in growing animals. • Materials are primarily antibiotics that help increase feed efficiency and rate of gain as well as control disease. • Follow all administration recommendations
Preventing & Treating Animal Health Problems • Paste • Normally used for treating horses for worms • Placed on the back of the tongue. • Impossible to treat for worms using other methods.
Preventing & Treating Animal Health Problems • Liquids • Drugs administered orally or placed directly in the animals stomach by drenching. • Drenching – administering large amounts of liquid to an animal • Care must be taken not to get the drug into the animals lung’s • Injection of drugs Injection – the process of administering drugs by needle and syringe.
Preventing & Treating Animal Health Problems • Methods of Injection • Intravenous – in a vein • Intramuscular – in a muscle • Subcutaneous – under the skin • Intradermal – between the layers of skin • Intraruminal – in the rumen • Intraperitoneal – in the abdominal cavity • One determining factor as to where injections are made is how fast the drug needs to work • A drug injected into the blood is available faster than one injected under the skin. • It may be desirable for drugs to be released slowly over a long period of time. Ex. Growth hormone