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APEC/OPRF Workshop Strengthening collaboration to counter piracy and armed robbery at sea “Response measures for countering piracy” 29 July 2009 Singapore. Tim Wilkins INTERTANKO Regional Manager Asia-Pacific. 1 Introduction 2 Overview of International Response

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APEC/OPRF WorkshopStrengthening collaboration to counter piracy and armed robbery at sea “Response measures for countering piracy”29 July 2009Singapore

Tim WilkinsINTERTANKO Regional Manager Asia-Pacific

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1 Introduction

2 Overview of International Response

3 Industry Approach and Response Measures

3.1 Industry Best Practice

4 Industry and Naval Coordination

5 Solutions

5.1 Industry views on short to long term solutions

gulf of aden transits 2007
Gulf of Aden transits 2007

1. Introduction

= C. 800 tanker transits per Month

Source: LMIU

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2. Overview of International Response

Political framework and the UN

  • Within the context of no functioning Somali Government…
  • UN and IMO actions included:
    • Emphasis on the roles of Warships to protect trade
    • 23 nations represented within EUNAVFOR, NATO and Non-aligned
  • Appropriate UN Security Council Resolutions to interdict
      • 1846 – UNCLOS extension
      • 1851 – Governments formed International Cooperative Mechanism - “The Contact Group”

WG 1 address activities related to military and operational coordination and information sharing, the establishment of the regional coordination center

WG 2 to address judicial aspects of piracy with the support of UNODC.

WG 3 to strengthen shipping self-awareness and other capabilities,

WG 4 to improve diplomatic and public information efforts on all aspects of piracy.

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2. Overview of International Response

Political framework and the UN

1851 – International Cooperative Mechanism - “The Contact Group”

WG 3 to strengthen shipping self-awareness and other capabilities,

  • Lessons learned from crew, vessel owners and military involved in pirate attacks
  • Use of the BMPs
  • Dissemination of the BMPs and relevant guidance
  • Identify labour issues and labour related BMP in support of crew training and post event activities
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IMO and the Shipping Industry

MSC/Circ.622/Rev.1 - Recommendations to Governments for preventing and suppressing piracy and armed robbery against ships

MSC/Circ.623/Rev.2 - Guidance to shipowners and ship operators, shipmasters and crews on preventing and suppressing acts of piracy and armed robbery against ships

Industry Best Management Practices

IMO MSC 86 discussions

BMPs adopted as regional annex to MSC/Circular 623

2. Overview of International Response

industry best management practices
Industry ‘Best Management Practices’

3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

  • OCIMF
  • INTERTANKO
  • ICS
  • BIMCO
  • SIGTTO
  • INTERCARGO
  • IGP&I
  • CLIA
  • IUMI
  • Joint War Committee
  • IMB
  • MSCHOA
  • MTO-Dubai
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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

Purpose: AvoidDeterDelay

Scope:

  • Prior to transit

1.1 General Planning

1.2 Company Planning

1.3 Ship’s Master Planning

1.4 Voyage planning

1.5 Self Protective (Defensive) Measures (SPMs)

  • In transit
  • If attacked
  • If boarding
  • In the event of military action
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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.1 General Planning

  • Information gathering:
    • Dubai Maritime Trade Operations (Dubai-MTO)
    • Maritime Security Centre – Horn of Africa (MSC – HOA)
    • IMB Piracy Reporting Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    • Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF- HOA)
    • Maritime Liaison Office – Bahrain (Marlo – Bahrain)
    • Industry bodies: OCIMF, INTERTANKO, INTERCARGO, ICS, BIMCO...
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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.1 General Planning

  • Information gathering
  • Risk Assessment
    • Attack Profiles and Lessons Learnt
    • Common vulnerabilities
      • Crew safety
      • Low freeboard
      • Speed
      • Prevailing weather
      • Time of transit
      • Piracy activity
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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.1 General Planning

  • Information gathering
  • Risk Assessment
  • Register with MSC HOA
  • ~30% of all vessels transiting the GoA are “NOT” registered with MSCHOA or reporting to MTO-Dubai
  • To date 23 vessels Hijacked were not registered with MSCHOA and not reporting positions
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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.2 Company Planning

  • Implementation of the Ship Security Plan (SSP)
    • Review of ISPS requirements – Ship Security Assessment and Plan (SSA / SSP)
    • Contingency planning by Company Security Officer (CSO)
    • Training of crew by Master and Ship Security Officer (SSO) – prior to passage
  • Information gathering and high risk awareness
  • Crisis management procedures (industry and IMO)
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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.3 Ship’s Master Planning

  • Report to Dubai-MTO (already registered with MSCHOA)
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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.3 Ship’s Master Planning

  • Report to Dubai-MTO
  • Ship board drills of contingency plan
  • Preparation of emergency communication
    • The Maritime Trade Operations Dubai (MTO Dubai)
    • The Maritime Security Centre Horn of Africa (MSCHOA)
    • The International Maritime Bureau (IMB)
    • Company Security Officer (CSO)
  • Define the ship’s AIS policy
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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.4 Voyage Planning

  • Registered with MSC HOA and report to MTO Dubai
  • Internationally recognised Transit Corridor (IRTC)
  • Group Transits
  • Outside the Gulf of Aden
    • ~600 miles off Somali coast
    • Continue reporting to MTO Dubai even when outside the GoA region
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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.4 Self Protective (Defensive) Measures (1)

  • Watchkeeping and Enhanced Vigilance
    • Additional lookouts
    • Early detection
    • Night vision binoculars’
    • Enhanced radar and radio watch

Strategically placed dummies can give the impression of greater numbers of crew on watch

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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.4 Self Protective (Defensive) Measures (2)

  • Security guards
    • No arming of ship’s crew
    • Private security services acceptable
    • Private armed guards - quality controls / legal aspects?
    • Government armed guards at owner’s discretion. Preferably from flag state
    • Unclarified legality/jurisdicion in case of crew member or pirate being killed by mistake/damage to ship/insurance
  • Closed circuit television (CCTV)
    • Vulnerable areas of vessel
    • Protected positioning of CCTV monitors
    • Recorded CCTV footage as evidence
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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.4 Self Protective (Defensive) Measures (3)

  • Piracy Attack Crew Muster Point
    • food and water
    • toilet facilities
    • 2 independent means of communication with the bridge (eg radio and telephone)
    • fire fighting equipment
    • first aid equipment
    • portable lighting
    • CCTV monitor
    • list of ship’s crew
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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.4 Self Protective (Defensive) Measures (4)

  • Alarms
  • Upper deck lighting
  • Ships Tools and Equipment
  • Protection of Equipment
  • Access Control
  • Bridge Protection

Security glass film protects against flying glass

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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.4 Self Protective (Defensive) Measures (5)

  • Physical Barriers

Full risk assessment should be carried out before the implementation of any physical barriers

Access to fire exit routes and life saving craft and appliances must be maintained.

Razor wire and steam piping

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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

1. Prior to transit:

1.4 Self Protective (Defensive) Measures (6)

  • Water spray and foam monitors

Hoses rigged in fixed position and remotely activated

Use of baffle plates

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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

2. In transit:

  • Group Transit through the IRTC
  • Relevant speed
  • Maintain vigilance and look out for suspicious craft

Typical skiff used in a pirate attack

Typical vessels used as mother ships

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3. Industry Approach and Response Measures3.1 Industry Best Practice

3. If attacked:

  • Follow pre-planned Contingency Plan
  • Activate Ship Security Alert System
  • AIS must be switched on
  • Maintain evasive manoeuvring measures and speed

4. If boarded:

  • Remain calm
  • Stay together
  • Offer no resistance
  • Cooperate with the pirates

5. In the event of military action

  • Do not use cameras
  • Keep low, cover head and make hands visible
  • Prepare to answer questions about identity
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4. Industry and Naval Coordination

IRTC system

  • Maximises assets available
  • Provides safety in numbers
  • Ships grouped (slow first/fast behind)
  • Maritime patrol aircraft widen the operational area of naval assets and quicken response times in the event of an attack
  • New ATALANTA aircraft patrols in Indian Ocean
forthcoming additional measures
Forthcoming Additional Measures

4. Industry and Naval Coordination

  • 1. Anti-Piracy Chart
  • Routing released from MSCHOA:
  • Weather Guidance will be provided
  • Reporting instructions included
  • Plotting Capabilities
  • Relevant Information & Guidance

2. Self Protection Measures

MSCHOA compiling a database of self protection measures used by merchant shipping in the region.  Aim to establish what works and what doesn't across the range of ship types

3. Navigational Warnings

MSCHOA worked with Staff Officers at UKHO to improve promulgation of the voluntary reporting procedures. They also aim to update relevant Notices to Mariners.

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5. Solutions: Industry views on future solutions

Industry

  • BMP needs promulgation to all ships and all crews – 80% attacks thwarted by using SPMs
  • Updating of BMP
  • Charter Party clauses

Governments

  • provide/maintain sufficient military assets
  • ensure coordinated approach among military assets for effective protection and response
  • ensure single/compatible rules of engagement
  • develop legal authority to prosecute captive pirates
  • develop long-term solution on land - solve problem at root not just fight symptoms
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THANK YOU

For more information, please visit:

www.intertanko.com

www.poseidonchallenge.com

www.shippingfacts.com

www.maritimefoundation.com