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Bibliographic Softwares EndNote Web & EndNote. Payam Kabiri, MD. PhD. Epidemiologist Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics School of Public Health Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Objectives. After this presentation, you will be able to

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bibliographic softwares endnote web endnote

Bibliographic Softwares EndNote Web & EndNote

Payam Kabiri, MD. PhD. Epidemiologist

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics

School of Public Health

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

  • After this presentation, you will be able to
    • Describe different kind of referencing formats
    • Define the different referencing styles
    • Understand what are EndNote and other reference management tools
    • Find more information on EndNote
    • Tell how EndNote can help you manage your literature search in the library
outline of session
Outline of session
  • Referencing – why is it so important?
  • Referencing systems:
    • Author, Date: Harvard
    • Numerical: Vancouver
  • Citing references: exercise on referencing different types of document and media (including online)
  • Bibliographic software for reference and citation
referencing why is it so important
Referencing – why is it so important?
  • Established academic practice
  • Shows where you got your information – well-founded research
  • Allows other researchers to trace your sources of information quickly and easily
  • Acknowledges the work of other researchers
  • Protects you against accusations of plagiarism
which style should i use
Which style should I use?
  • Various different stylesare in use
  • If you are writing a paper for an academic journal, use the style that they specify
  • If no advice, choose one of the University’s recommended schemes: Harvard, Numeric (Like Vancouver)
  • Vancouver probably is the most suitable one for Health & Medical subjects
main important referencing styles
Main Important Referencing Styles
  • Author-Date Style

(Harvard Style)

  • Numeric Style

(Vancouver Style)

author date format in text citations
Author-Date formatIn Text citations
  • Cite your sources within your text by giving the author’s surname(s), year of publication, and (when appropriate) page numbers:
  • Examples:
    • Contrary to popular perception, violent crime has been shown to be decreasing (Johnson 2004)
    • James and Peters (2003) have argued that…
author date format reference list bibliography
Author-Date format Reference List Bibliography
  • Citations in the text refer to a full reference in the bibliography
  • All references are listed in author/date order:-
  • Example:
    • HOLLAND, M., 2002. Guide to citing Internet sources [online]. Poole: Bournemouth University. Available from: [Accessed 4 November 2002].
    • OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1989. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    • UNESCO, 1993. General information programme and UNISIST. Paris: UNESCO, (PGI-93/WS/22).
    • WISEMAN, S., ed., 1967. Intelligence and ability. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
numeric system in text citations
Numeric system In Text Citations

Each citation in the text is given a number in brackets:


  • Ericson (1) and Milne (2) take the view that… but other authorities (3) argue that…

References are listed in number order in the bibliography, & cited by that number each time they are referred to in the text.

numeric system reference list bibliography
Numeric systemReference List Bibliography


  • ERICSON, E.E., 1991. The apocalyptic vision of Mikhail Bulgakov's ‘The Master and Margarita'. New York: Edwin Mellen, p.153.
  • MILNE, L., 1977 . ‘The Master and Margarita’: a comedy of victory. Birmingham: University of Birmingham, pp.62-3. 
  • BARRATT, A., 1987. Between two worlds: a critical introduction to ‘The Master and Margarita’. Oxford: Clarendon Press, p.96.

NB Each reference number points to a single reference only

harvard referencing different source type examples
Harvard ReferencingDifferent Source Type Examples

Compile references for a bibliography using the examples given out which include:-

  • Journal article
  • E-journal article
  • Film
  • EU directive
  • Report
  • Wikipedia entry
journal article
Journal article

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., Year. Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number (part), page numbers.

OZERTURK, S. and SAGGI, K., 2005. Tariff discrimination versus MFN under incomplete information. Journal of international trade & economic development, 14(2), 197-208.

e journal article
E-journal article

AUTHOR’S SURNAME, INITIALS., Year. Title. Journal title [online], volume (issue). Available from: URL [Accessed date].

REED, E.J. and WOLNIAK, G.C., 2005. Diagnosis or determination?: assessment explained through human capital theory and the concept of aptitudes. Electronic journal of sociology [online]. Available from: [Accessed 6/12/2005].


Title, Year of release. Material designation. Subsidiary originator (usually director: SURNAME in upper case). Production details i.e. Place: Organisation.

Voyna i mir, 1968. Film. Directed by Sergei BONDARCHUK. USSR: Mosfilm.

report or book
Report – or book?

AUTHOR, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, (Report number).

DEPARTMENT FOR HEALTH. SOCIAL SERVICES INSPECTORATE, 1994. Services to disabled children and their families: report of the national inspection of services to disabled children and their families. London: HMSO.


Things to consider…

  • book/work usually known by its title
  • no personal author
  • paper/chapter from a book
  • format for e-books and web pages

WIKIPEDIA, n.d. Sigmund Freud. In: Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia [online]. St Petersburg, Florida: Wikimedia Foundation. Available from: [Accessed: 1/12/2005]

reference management s softwares
Reference management’s softwares

These softwares enable you to:

  • Download and store references
  • Include abstracts, keywords and notes with the references & also fulltexts.
  • Produce lists of references for yourself or others
  • Automatically insert citations of references while typing (Cite While You Write)
  • Create a bibliography while typing (Cite While You Write)
free open source alternatives to endnote
Free, open source alternatives to EndNote
  • Most of the open source alternatives listed below are citation generators, which means they don’t store the citations for you, but they do automatically format them in a particular citation style after you’ve entered all the relevant information (author, title, etc.). A few others are markup languages, and one, Zotero, allows you to cite and store sources within your web browser.
free open source alternatives to endnote20
Free, open source alternatives to EndNote
  • KnightCite Citation Creation Tool - this site generates citations in APA, MLA, and Chicago citation styles
  • EasyBib - this site generates citations in MLA and APA formats
  • NoodleBib (requires free registration) - this site generates citations for APA and MLA citation styles
free open source alternatives to endnote21
Free, open source alternatives to EndNote
  • Tech4Learning's Citation Maker (requires free registration) - choose "Tools," then "Citation Maker" to generate citations for MLA and APA
  • Scribe – this markup language is an ancestor of HTML and LaTeX (a citation system used by mathematicians, engineers, and scientists)
free open source alternatives to endnote22
Free, open source alternatives to EndNote
  • LaTeX - this document preparation system is for technical and scientific work. Click here to download it for free.
  • BibTeX - an off-shoot of LaTeX, this markup language is supported by Google Scholar
  • Zotero - as an extension of Firefox, this program allows you to import citations from web pages into a personal filing system (Firefox 2.0 is required to use this)
endnote and reference manager
EndNote and Reference Manager
  • The two most popular packages from ISI ResearchSoft
  • Introduce a high level of flexibility and functionality to the bibliographic management process
  • EndNote includes 35 different reference types each with 52 fields
  • More than 1300 different output styles
  • More than 480 different Import Filters
  • Access over 300 Internet libraries (z39.50 sites) to search from within EndNote using connection files
  • Access over Different databsesto search from within EndNote
pros and cons
Pros and cons

  • easy to use - Windows type interface
  • convenient - automatic downloading
  • flexible - many reference types and output styles
  • accurate - you can keep track of publications used in your research

  • requires time to learn
  • some output styles may not be available or suitable
  • not all online resources allow automatic downloading
importing references
Importing references
  • Create a EndNote database
  • Search Web of Science and mark the references for downloading
  • Select Add to Marked List and then Marked List
  • Select the fields to include: the abstract is recommended
  • Select Export to Reference Software
  • Select EndNote and then OK
  • Choose the EndNote database and then Open
cite while you write
Cite While You Write

Inserting a citation

  • Open the EndNote database
  • Open the Microsoft Word document and position the cursor at the location for the citation
  • Select View -Toolbars - EndNote
  • Select Insert Citation on the toolbar
  • Enter identifying text in the ‘Search for:’ box and select Perform Search
  • Highlight the citation and then select Insert
cite while you write28
Cite While You Write

Formatting a citation

  • Select Generate Bibliography on the toolbar
  • Select Harvard in the output Style box and then OK

Deleting a citation

  • Highlight the citation and then select Edit Citation(s)
  • Highlight the citation to be removed
  • Select Remove and then OK

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