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Chapter 15

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Chapter 15

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  1. Chapter 15 The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia

  2. The Sui Dynasty (589-618 CE) • Regional kingdoms succeed collapse of Han dynasty • Yang Jian consolidates control of all of China, initiates Sui Dynasty • Massive building projects • Military labor • Conscripted labor

  3. The Grand Canal • Intended to promote trade between north and south China • Most Chinese rivers flow west-east • Linked network of earlier canals • 2000k (1240 miles) • Roads on either bank • Succeeded only by railroad traffic in 20th century

  4. The Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) • Wide discontent over conscripted labor in Sui dynasty • Military failures in Korea prompt rebellion • Emperor assassinated in 618 • Tang Dynasty initiated

  5. Tang Taizong • Second emperor of Tang dynasty (r. 627-649 CE) • Murdered two brothers, thrust father aside to take throne • Strong ruler • Built capital at Chang’an • Law and order • Taxes, prices low • More effective implementation of earlier Sui policies

  6. Major achievements of Tang Dynasty • Transportation and communications • Extensive postal, courier services • Equal-field System • 20% of land hereditary ownership • 80% redistributed according to formula • Family size, land fertility • Worked well until 8th century • Corruption, loss of land to Buddhist monasteries

  7. Bureaucracy of Merit • Imperial civil service examinations • Confucian educational curriculum • Some bribery, nepotism • But most advance through merit • Built loyalty to the dynasty • System remains strong until early 20th century

  8. Tang Military Expansion and Foreign Relations • Manchuria, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet • One of the largest expansions of China in its history • Established tributary relationships • Gifts • China as “Middle Kingdom” • The kowtow ritual

  9. . The Sui and Tang dynasties, 589-907 CE

  10. Tang Decline • Governmental neglect: Emperor obsessed with music, favorite concubine • 775 rebellion under An Lushan, former military commander • Captures Chang’an, but rebellion crushed by 763 • Nomadic Uighur mercenaries invited to suppress rebellion, sacked Chang’an and Luoyang • Tang decline continues, rebellions in 9th century, last emperor abdicates 907

  11. Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE) • Emphasis on administration, industry, education, the arts • Military not emphasized • Direction of first emperor, Song Taizu (r. 960-976 CE) • Former military leader • Made emperor by troops • Instituted policy of imperial favor for civil servants, expanded meritocracy

  12. The Song dynasty, 960-1279 C.E. The Song dynasty, 960-1279 CE

  13. Song Weaknesses • Size of bureaucracy heavy drain on economy • Two peasant rebellions in 12th c. • Internal inertia prevents reform of bureaucracy • Civil service leadership of military • Lacked military training • Unable to contain nomadic attacks • Jurchen conquer, force Song dynasty to Hangzhou, southern China (Southern Song)

  14. Agricultural Economies of the Tang and Song Dynasties • Developed Vietnamese fast-ripening rice, 2 crops per year • Technology: iron plows, use of draft animals • Soil fertilization, improved irrigation • Water wheels, canals • Terrace farming

  15. Population Growth • Result of increased agricultural production • Effective food distribution system • Transportation networks built under Tang and Song dynasties

  16. Urbanization • Chang’an world’s most populous city: 2 million residents • Southern Song capital Hangzhou: over 1 million

  17. Patriarchal Social Structures • Increased emphasis on ancestor worship • Elaborate grave rituals • Extended family gatherings in honor of deceased ancestors • Footbinding gains popularity • Increased control by male family members

  18. Footbinding

  19. Technology and Industry • Porcelain (“Chinaware”) • Increase of iron production due to use of coke, not coal, in furnaces • Agricultural tools, weaponry • Gunpowder invented • Earlier printing techniques refined • Moveable type by mid-11th century • Yet complex Chinese ideographs make wood block technique easier • Naval technology

  20. Emergence of a Market Economy • Letters of credit developed to deal with copper coin shortages • Promissory notes, checks also used • Development of independently produced paper money • Not as stable, riots when not honored • Government claims monopoly on money production in 11th century

  21. China and the Hemispheric Economy • Increasingly cosmopolitan nature of Chinese cities • Chinese silk opens up trade routes, but increases local demands for imported luxury goods

  22. Cultural Change in Tang and Song China • Declining confidence in Confucianism after collapse of Han dynasty • Increasing popularity of Buddhism • Christianity, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, Islam also appear • Clientele primarily foreign merchant class

  23. Dunhuang • Mahayana Buddhism especially popular in western China (Gansu province), 600-1000 CE • Buddhist temples, libraries • Economic success as converts donate land holdings • Increase popularity through donations of agricultural produce to the poor

  24. Buddhism: Text-based (Buddhist teachings) Emphasis on Metaphysics Ascetic ideal Celibacy isolation Confucianism: Text-based (Confucian teachings) Daoism not text-based Emphasis on ethics, politics Family-centered Procreation Filial piety Conflicts with Chinese Culture

  25. Chan (Zen) Buddhism • Buddhists adapt ideology to Chinese climate • Dharma translated as dao • Nirvana translated as wuwei • Accommodated family lifestyle • “one son in monastery for ten generations of salvation” • Limited emphasis on textual study, meditation instead

  26. Persecution of Buddhists • Daoist/Confucian persecution supported in late Tang dynasty • 840s begins systematic closure of Buddhist temples, expulsions • Zoroastrians, Christians, Manicheans as well • Economic motive: seizure of large monastic landholdings

  27. Neo-Confucianism • Song dynasty refrains from persecuting Buddhists, but favors Confucians • Neo-Confucians influenced by Buddhist thought

  28. China and Korea • Silla Dynasty: Tang armies withdraw, Korea recognizes Tang as emperor • Technically a vassal statue, but highly independent • Chinese influence on Korean culture pervasive

  29. China and Vietnam • Vietnamese adaptation to Chinese culture, technology • But ongoing resentment at political domination • Assert independence when Tang dynasty falls in 10th century

  30. China and Early Japan • Chinese armies never invade Japan • Yet Chinese culture pervasive • Imitation of Tang administration • Establishment of new capital at Nara, hence “Nara Japan” (710-794 CE) • Adoption of Confucian, Buddhist teachings • Yet retention of Shinto religion

  31. Heian Japan (794-1185 CE) • Japanese emperor moves court to Heian (Kyoto) • Yet emperor figurehead, real power in hands of Fujiwara clan • Pattern in Japanese history: weak emperor, power behind the throne • Helps explain longevity of the institution

  32. Japanese Literature • Influence of Chinese kanji characters • Classic curriculum dominated by Chinese

  33. Institution of the Shogun • Civil war between Taira and Minamoto clans in 12th century • Minamoto leader named shogun, 1185 CE • Ruled from Kamakura, allowed imperial throne to continue in Kyoto

  34. Medieval Japan • Kamakura (1185-1333 CE) and Muromachi (1336-1573 CE) periods • Decentralized power in hands of warlords • Military authority in hands of samurai • Professional warriors