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Integration of Cellular Systems with WLAN and Internet . Jack Winters Chief Scientist, Motia, Inc. Email: jwinters@motia.com Phone: 732 208-5568. OUTLINE. Current Systems Current Trends Technical Issues Smart Antennas Predictions. $/Cell. $/Sub. UWB. 3.1-10.6 GHz. $ 500,000 $ 1000

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integration of cellular systems with wlan and internet
Integration of Cellular Systems with WLAN and Internet

Jack Winters

Chief Scientist, Motia, Inc.

Email: jwinters@motia.com

Phone: 732 208-5568

outline
OUTLINE
  • Current Systems
  • Current Trends
  • Technical Issues
  • Smart Antennas
  • Predictions
current systems

$/Cell

$/Sub

UWB

3.1-10.6 GHz

$ 500,000

$ 1000

$ 100

$ 500

$ 100

$ 10

802.11g/a

2.4, 5.5GHz Unlicensed

802.11b

2.4GHz Unlicensed

2G/3G Wireless

0.9, 2 GHz

Current Systems

Peak Data Rate

High performance/price

100 Mbps

10 Mbps

1 Mbps

BlueTooth

2.4GHz

100 kbps

High ubiquity and mobility

Range

10 feet

100 feet

1 mile

10 miles

Mobile Speed

60 mph

2 mph

10 mph

30 mph

current trends in wlans
Current Trendsin WLANs
  • Business WLANs dominate, but home usage growing faster (14 million WLANs sold last year)
  • Spontaneous appearance of neighborhood/residential access sites via consumer broadband wire-line connections
  • Public WLAN offerings for enterprise and home users when they are away from the office or home
    • Players:
      • Wayport
      • Cometa (AT&T, Intel, IBM)
      • Aggregators: Boingo Wireless
      • Cellular companies (Verizon, AWS)
internet roaming
Internet Roaming

Cellular Wireless

  • Seamless handoffs between WLAN and WAN
    • high-performance when possible
    • ubiquity with reduced throughput
  • Management/brokering of consolidated WLAN and WAN access
  • Adaptive or performance-aware applications
  • Nokia GPRS/802.11b PCMCIA card
  • NTT DoCoMo WLAN/WCDMA trial

Internet

Wireless LAN’s

Home

Enterprise

Public

technical issues
Technical Issues
  • Handoffs: Many architectures proposed (see, e.g., Session 11C), currently in standards committees
  • Voice/Music streaming/Video streaming in WLANs (802.11e) (MERU)
  • Range
  • Higher data rates in both cellular and WLANs
  • Capacity/Interference
  • Key constraint: Stay within existing standards/standard evolution (enhance performance within standards and drive standards evolution)
wireless system enhancements

$/Cell

$/Sub

UWB

3.1-10.6 GHz

$ 500,000

$ 1000

$ 100

$ 500

$ 100

$ 10

802.11a/g

2.4, 5.5GHz Unlicensed

802.11b

2.4GHz Unlicensed

2G/3G Wireless

0.9, 2GHz

Wireless System Enhancements

Peak Data Rate

High performance/price

100 Mbps

10 Mbps

Enhanced

1 Mbps

BlueTooth

2.4GHz

100 kbps

High ubiquity and mobility

Range

10 feet

100 feet

1 mile

10 miles

60 mph

Mobile Speed

2 mph

10 mph

30 mph

enhancements
Enhancements
  • Smart Antennas (keeping within standards):
    • Range increase
    • Interference suppression
    • Capacity increase
    • Data rate increase using multiple transmit/receive antennas (MIMO)
    • Can be combined with radio resource management techniques for even greater gains
slide9

SIGNAL

INTERFERENCE

BEAMFORMER WEIGHTS

INTERFERENCE

Smart Antennas

SIGNAL OUTPUT

  • Smart Antennas significantly improve performance:
  • Higher antenna gain with multipath mitigation (gain of M with M-fold diversity)  Range extension
  • Interference suppression (suppress M-1 interferers)  Quality and capacity improvement
  • With smart antennas at Tx/Rx  MIMO capacity increase(M-fold)
multiple input multiple output mimo radio
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Radio
  • With M transmit and M receive antennas, can provide M independent channels, to increase data rate M-fold with no increase in total transmit power (with sufficient multipath) – only an increase in DSP
    • Indoors – up to 150-fold increase in theory
    • Outdoors – 8-12-fold increase typical
  • Measurements (e.g., AT&T) show 4x data rate & capacity increase in all mobile & indoor/outdoor environments (4 Tx and 4 Rx antennas)
    • 216 Mbps 802.11a (4X 54 Mbps)
    • 1.5 Mbps EDGE
    • 19 Mbps WCDMA
slide11

Smart Antennas for Cellular

BEAM

SELECT

SIGNAL

SIGNAL

OUTPUT

BEAMFORMER

INTERFERENCE

  • Key enhancement technique to increase system capacity, extend coverage, and improve user experience in cellular (IS-136)

Uplink Adaptive Antenna

SIGNAL

SIGNAL

OUTPUT

INTERFERENCE

BEAMFORMER

WEIGHTS

Downlink Switched Beam Antenna

In 1999, combining at TDMA base stations changed from MRC to MMSE for capacity increase

smart antennas in cellular systems
Smart Antennas in Cellular Systems
  • Smart antennas for WCDMA can provide significant gains (>7 dB at handset)
    • But not justified today (Innovics, Metawave)
  • MIMO for WCDMA may be implemented in 2-5 years
slide13

Smart Antennas for WLANs

Smart

Antenna

Smart

Antenna

AP

AP

Interference

Smart Antennas can significantly improve the performance of WLANs

  • TDD operation (only need smart antenna at access point or terminal for performance improvement in both directions)
  • Interference suppression  Improve system capacity and throughput
    • Supports aggressive frequency re-use for higher spectrum efficiency, robustness in the ISM band (microwave ovens, outdoor lights)
  • Higher antenna gain  Extend range (outdoor coverage)
  • Multipath diversity gain  Improve reliability
  • MIMO (multiple antennas at AP and laptop)  Increase data rates
slide14
“We don’t believe in dumb access points,” says William Rossi, vice president and general manager for Cisco’s wireless business unit. “The access points will eventually become smart antennas.”

Network World 06/02/03

slide15
When?

Communications Design Conference:

Craig Barratt (Atheros) - expects the technology (smart antennas) to first appear before the end of next year in silicon for access points supporting multiple antennas linking to single-antenna PC chip sets to provide greater range or capacity - followed by support for multiple antennas on both client and access-point chip sets. (Airgo - MIMO)

Craig Mathias (Farpoint Group) -expects to see cellphones with WiFi emerge at the Consumer Electronics Show in January and to be in production by June - we will see the logical convergence of cellular and WiFi networks next year

Christian Kermarrec (Analog Devices) - you need standardization for roaming to happen, and that won't come from the 3GPP until the end of this year - it will probably not be implemented for another two or three years

Andrew Seybold (Outlook 4Mobility) - seamless roaming between the two networks won't arrive for as many as three years

progression
Progression
  • Smart antennas for 802.11 APs/clients
  • Cellphones, PDAs, laptops with integrated WLAN/cellular
  • Smart antennas for both WLANs and cellular in these devices
  • MIMO in WLANs (802.11n), with MIMO in cellular (base stations)
  • Seamless roaming with WLANs/cellular