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Doing more with Less Coal Efficiency and GHG Intensity enhancement potential for the Steel Sector in India. Institutional Mentor / Partner. Lead Researchers: Dr. Amit Garg, Vivek Gilani Co-Researchers: Gyan Prakash, Saumya Aggarwal, Bhaskar Govindrajan, Udit Bansal.

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Doing more with less

Doing more with Less

Coal Efficiency and GHG Intensity enhancement potential for the Steel Sector in India

Institutional Mentor / Partner

Lead Researchers: Dr. Amit Garg, Vivek Gilani

Co-Researchers: Gyan Prakash, Saumya Aggarwal, Bhaskar Govindrajan, Udit Bansal

Facts from india coal market watch august 2011
Facts from India Coal Market Watch – August 2011

  • Domestic coal production target for 2011-12 is 554 mt

  • India adds 1660 MW generation capacity in July (all Thermal Power)

  • Indian plants exceed power generation target in July 2011

  • Coal India Ltd (CIL) reported a 64.06% rise in profit after tax (PAT) during the first quarter (April-June) of 2011-12

    So far so good……………..

Facts from india coal market watch out august 2011
Facts from India Coal Market Watch Out!– August 2011

  • India’s coal import in 2011-12 likely at 137.03 mt

  • The import of coking coal through Paradip port on the eastern coast of India surged by almost 4,10,095 tons in July 2011 to 6,68,574 tons as compared to 2,58,479 tons in June 2011

  • Imports of PCI coal through Vizag port in July 2011 stood at 1,13,467 tons, which was higher by 86,764 tons than 26,703 tons imported in June 2011

  • The imports of Low Ash Metallurgical (LAM) coke through Paradip port in the month of July 2011 rose sharply to 60,590 tons compared with 6000 tons in June 2011

  • 171 coal mining proposals involving 28,862 hectares of forest land are awaiting forestry clearance as on June 30, 2011

  • 44 projects of Coal India Ltd (CIL) stuck under Comprehensive Environment Pollution India (CEPI) norms introduced by MoEF

Doing more with less


Can the most efficient users of coal in India’s

Steel Sector help -

increase India’s Energy Self-Sufficiency,

meet it’s Climate Change Commitments,

and also save some Forests in the bargain?

Doing more with less

Source: CompaniesMckinsey – Environment and energy sustainability: An approach for India

Energy efficiency measures
Energy CompaniesEfficiency measures

  • Process efficiency – sinter plant heat recovery, coal moisture control

  • Optimized energy use - pulverized coal injection, coke dry quenching and recovering waste heat

Fuel Shift

  • Substituting coke used in BF/BOF furnaces with fuel based on biomass (charcoal)

  • Replacing 10% of coke as the primary blast furnace tool

Technology changes
Technology Changes Companies

  • Direct smelting

    • remove need for coking plants

    • Challenge – Issues with technologies need to be resolved

  • Scrap based steel making

    • 1/3 energy required by standard blast furnace

    • Challenge – if 10% of the total production moved to this system 70% of India’s steel would need to be recycled which involves a economic cost

  • Gas based direct reduced iron

    • Challenge: Availability of gas to steel plants

  • Cogeneration – gas from the BOF/BF process is recovered, cleaned and used for power generation

Energy self sufficiency and indian steel sector
Energy Self-Sufficiency and Indian Steel Sector Companies

  • Coking coal prices at $225 a ton for the second quarter beginning July 2010 compared with $129 a ton level in 2009-10

  • Very high dependency on Australia for coking coal

  • Energy Self-Sufficiency: India would need 2.4 billion tonnes of steel/yr by 2030 which would assume India would need to import 40% of its coal needs

Learnings and way forward
Learnings and Way Forward Companies

  • Best practice gap in terms of GHG Intensity of Production from Coal for Cement Industry: increased from ratio of 13.4 to 15.7 in 3 years.

  • Best Practice Technology (BPT) replication achievable realistically using off-the-shelf technologies in India

  • BPT replication in Steel Industry alone can yield 36 million tons of coal saving and reduce India’s imports dramatically

  • BPT replication from merely this sector can help India achieve more than 100% of its GHG Emissions commitment to COP15 (reducing GHG intensity of the GDP by 20%-25% by 2020)

  • Thus, despite being a proactive environmental research and outreach body – not anti-coal as a fuel – but a rational promoter of the roadmap to do more with the lessening coal we have in India and globally.

  • Need of the hour – process optimisation technology sharing amongst the Steel Industry and active promotion and incentivisation of efficient users of coal and low-GHG intensity steelon platforms such as coaljunction and metaljunction.