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Researching and Publishing Using Process Modelling to Understand IS Development

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  1. Researching Using Process Modelling to Understand IS Development Professor Mike Newman Manchester Business School Symposium in honour of Dan Robey St Louis, December 15th 2010 Professor Mike Newman Manchester Business School Seminar: KISS-09 Researching and Publishing Using Process Modelling to Understand IS Development

  2. It started with a napkin

  3. Factor model • Independent Variables • Resources • User involvement • Technical quality • Top management support • Dependent Variables • Use of system • Economic benefit • Better decisions • User satisfaction Inferred processes of development (Black-box) General Process model Environment Critical Event 1 Critical Event 2 Critical Event N Critical Event N+1 Outcomes Antecedent conditions Time Factor and process model of system development (adapted from Newman & Robey (1992) and Lyytinen & Newman (2008))

  4. Variants on Factor Studies(SEM example)Houser J. A model for evaluating the context of nursing care delivery. J Nurs Adm. 2003; 33: 39 – 47 -2.191* Staff Stability Leadership 1.918* Staff Expertise -.990 -2.133* -2.034* Teamwork Patient Outcomes Resources -.455 3.093* Workload SEM Model *p < .05

  5. A Soccer Allegory: outcome Outcome of game Result 2-1 (plus Injuries, cards) Results oriented: IS Factor studies.... (”Theoretical” but a-historical, a-contextual, a-processual)

  6. Factor model • Independent Variables • Resources • User involvement • Technical quality • Top management support • Dependent Variables • Use of system • Economic benefit • Better decisions • User satisfaction Inferred processes of development (Black-box) General Process model Environment Critical Event 1 Critical Event 2 Critical Event N Critical Event N+1 Outcomes Antecedent conditions Time Factor and process model of system development (adapted from Newman & Robey (1992) and Lyytinen & Newman (2008))

  7. Early Process Papers Newman, M., and Sabherwal, R. (1991), "Information Systems Development: Four Process Scenarios", J. Information Systems, Vol. 5, No. 1, Spring, pp. 84-101. Newman, M., and Robey, D. (1992), "A Social Process Model of User-Analyst Relationships", MIS Quarterly, Vol.16, No. 2, June, pp. 249-266. Noble, Faith and Newman, Michael (1993), "Integrated Systems, Autonomous Departments: Organizational Invalidity and Resistance in a University". J. Management Studies, Vol. 30, No. 2, March, pp. 195-219. Robey, D., and Newman, M., (1996) Sequential Patterns in Information Systems Development: An Application of a Social Process Model, ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 14 (1), 30-63 Newman, M. and Sabherwal, R. (1996), "Determinants of Commitment to Information System Development: A Longitudinal Investigation". MIS Quarterly, pp 23-54. Heiskanen, A., Newman, M., and Simila, J., (2000), "The Social Dynamics of Software Development". Accounting, Management and Information Technologies, 10 (1), 1-32. Sabherwal, Rajiv and Newman, Michael (2003) "Persistence and Change in System Development: A Dialectical View”, Journal of Information Technology, 18 (2), 69-92.

  8. Time Acceptance Antecedent conditions No significant pattern of development Analyst-led development User-led development Joint development en1 en2 ep1 ep6 (outcome) Equivocation ep2 en3 en4 en6 ep3 ep5 Rejection ep4 en5 Legend: encounter (en) episode (ep) Mapping events in a social process (Newman & Robey, 1992)

  9. A Soccer Allegory: critical events E6, t6 E3, t3 E1, t1 E7, t7 Critical events, E on field at Time, t E4, t4 E2, t2 E5, t5

  10. Later Process Publications 2006- Pan, G., Pan, S., Newman, M., and Flynn, D. (2006) “Escalation and De-escalation of Commitment to Information Technology Projects: A Commitment Transformation Analysis of an E-government Project,” Information Systems Journal, 16 (1) 3-21. Pan, S.L., Pan, G., Newman, M. and Flynn, D. (2006) “Escalation and De-escalation of Commitment to Information Systems Projects: Insights from a Post-implementation Evaluation Model”. European J. Operations Research. 173 (3), 1139-1160. Newman, M. and Zhao, Y. (2008) “The Process of ERP Implementation and BPR: A Tale from two Chinese SMEs”. Information Systems Journal, 18 (4): 405–426. Heiskanen, A., Newman, M. and Elkin, M. (2008),Control, Trust, and the Dynamics of Information System Outsourcing Relationships: A Process Study of Contractual Software Development. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 17 (4): 268-286. Lyytinen, K. and Newman, M. (2008), “Explaining information systems change: a punctuated socio-technical change model”, European Journal of Information Systems 17 (6): 589-613. Newman, M. and Zhu, S. (2009) “Punctuated Process Modelling of Information Systems: An Illustration from a Mid-sized Enterprise” Communications of the AIS, Volume 24, Article 39. Pan, G., Pan, S.L., Newman, M. (2009) “Managing Information Technology Project Escalation and De-escalation: An Approach-avoidance Perspective. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 56 (2): 76-94. Lyytinen, K., Newman, M. and Al-Muharfi, A. (2009), “Institutionalising Enterprise Resource Planning in the Saudi Steel Industry: a Punctuated Socio-technical Analysis”. Journal of Information Technology 24 (4): 286-304.

  11. ENVIRONMENT Event 1 Event 2 Event n Event n +1 Building system Event 1 Event 2 Event n Event n +1 Work system Multi-level IS change (adapted from Lyytinen & Newman, 2008)

  12. Structure BALANCED Task Technology People Time Event model of socio-technical change (adapted from Lyytinen & Newman, 2008) Critical Incident / Punctuation Event X Successful Intervention Structure Structure GAP BALANCED Task Technology Task Technology People People

  13. Structure BALANCED Task Technology People Project outcomes Structure GAP Outcome 1: Failed process Task Technology People Structure GAP Pre- Conditions Outcome 2: Successful process Task Technology People Structure GAP Outcome 3: Crisis – Further problems Task Technology GAP People Time

  14. Technology People Task Structure Project trajectory using PSIC model Base system Case 2 Organizational Context Overall System Roll-out Looking for System replacement Project started PM Development approach BPR team missing PM terminated Project Level issues Project Level P17 P19 P1 P2 P3 P4 Vendor Level V18 V19 V2 V3 V4 Contract terminated Vendor Level issues Business Analyst terminated Vendor Leaves Project site Vendor Development activity Absorb BPR Problem Streamlining Account codes Audit process 32% system completion Work Level issues W17 W18 W19 W1 W4 Work Level March 2007 February 2009

  15. A Soccer Allegory: ethnography All events on field for all times of play Continual: action research/ ethnography

  16. A Soccer Allegory: a Holistic view Outcome of game Result 2-1 (plus Injuries, cards) E6, t6 E3, t3 E1, t1 Game conditions: (Weather, Referee, Pitch, Home/ away, regulations, wages etc.) Critical events, E on field at Time, t E4, t4 E2, t2 Context: Specific game/ league/ regulators/ society E5, t5 History or “Form” (Recent form (wins, losses draws), Injuries, # games, cards, entry/ exit of players or manager etc.) Antecedent conditions

  17. “No” Closed Boxing e.g. ethnographies Complete Closed Boxing e.g. Statistical Models Middle-Range Closed Boxing e.g. Process Theories Simple complex Social Process Model Punctuated Social-technical ISD Change (PSIC) Model (Lyytinen & Newman (2008)) “Raw” Data Story Telling Factor Models SEM Closed Boxing Position of the PSIC model within IS research streams (adapted from Lyytinen & Newman, 2008)

  18. Glorious Reds

  19. Final Thoughts on Dan • Every academic needs a Dan in their lives! • He exudes calm and peace and at FIU created a stimulating work environment • He is a wonderful word craftsman who just knows what the right word and phrase should be • He simplifies over-complex ideas • He has a Welsh ancestry! • Thanks Dan. It’s great knowing you!