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Textbook sections 27-1 – 27-3 PowerPoint Presentation
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Textbook sections 27-1 – 27-3 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Textbook sections 27-1 – 27-3

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  1. Ciliary Muscles Physics 1161: PreLecture 25 Lenses and your EYE • Textbook sections 27-1 – 27-3

  2. Review: Converging Lens Principal Rays Image Assumptions: • monochromatic light incident on a thin lens. • rays are all “near” the principal axis. F P.A. Object F 1) Rays parallel to principal axis pass through focal point. 2) Rays through center of lens are not refracted. 3) Rays through F emerge parallel to principal axis. Image is real, inverted and enlarged

  3. Lens Equation do f di F Image P.A. Object F • do = distance object is from lens: • Positive: object in front of lens • Negative: object behind lens Example • di = distance image is from lens: • Positive: real image (behind lens) • Negative: virtual image (in front of lens) • f = focal length lens: • Positive: converging lens • Negative: diverging lens

  4. Ciliary Muscles Amazing Eye • One of first organs to develop. • 100 million Receptors • 200,000 /mm2 • Sensitive to single photons! • http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vision/retina.html#c2

  5. Example Eye (Relaxed) 25 mm Determine the focal length of your eye when looking at an object far away. Object is far away: Want image at retina:

  6. Object is far away: Want image at retina: Example Eye (Relaxed) 25 mm Determine the focal length of your eye when looking at an object far away.

  7. Example Eye (Tensed) 250 mm 25 mm Determine the focal length of your eye when looking at an object up close (25 cm). Object is up close: Want image at retina:

  8. Object is up close: Want image at retina: Example Eye (Tensed) 250 mm 25 mm Determine the focal length of your eye when looking at an object up close (25 cm).

  9. Near Point, Far Point • Eye’s lens changes shape (changes f ) • Object at any do can have image be at retina (di = approx. 25 mm) • Can only change shape so much • “Near Point” • Closest do where image can be at retina • Normally, ~25 cm (if far-sighted then further) • “Far Point” • Furthest do where image can be at retina • Normally, infinity (if near-sighted then closer)

  10. Too far for near-sighted eye to focus do Near-sighted eye can focus on this! dfar Contacts form virtual image at far point – becomes object for eye. If you are nearsighted... (far point is too close) Example flens = Want to have (virtual) image of distant object, do = , at the far point, di = -dfar.

  11. Refractive Power of Lens Diopter = 1/f where f is focal length of lens in meters. Person with far point of 5 meters, would need contacts with focal length –5 meters. Doctor’s prescription reads: 1/(-5m) = –0.20 Diopters

  12. If you are farsighted... Too close for far-sighted eye to focus do dnear Far-sighted eye can focus on this! Contacts form virtual image at near point – becomes object for eye. (near point is too far) Example Want the near point to be at do. When object is at do, lens must create an (virtual) image at -dnear. flens =

  13. If you are farsighted... Too close for far-sighted eye to focus do dnear Far-sighted eye can focus on this! Contacts form virtual image at near point – becomes object for eye. (near point is too far) Example Want the near point to be at do. When object is at do, lens must create an (virtual) image at -dnear.

  14. object h0 q N Unaided Eye How big the object looks with unaided eye. Bring object as close as possible (to near point N) **If q is small and expressed in radians.

  15. magnifying glass virtual image object hi ho do di Compare to unaided eye: : Magnifying Glass Magnifying glass produces virtual image behind object, allowing you to bring object to a closer do: and larger q’ Ratio of the two angles is theangularmagnification M: