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Rice

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Rice

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  1. Rice

  2. Leading States • 1. Arkansas • 2. California • 3. Louisiana • 4. Texas • 5. Mississippi • 6. Missouri

  3. Botany • Height = up to 6 feet • Inflorescence is a loose terminal panicle • Panicle consisting of 1 flowered spikelet • Flower is self pollinating • Each flower will produce 100-150 seeds • Seeds are in hulls • Kernels vary in length 3.5 – 8 mm • Kernels may be hard, semihard, or soft textured.

  4. Commercial Classes • Are determined by length • Short 5.5 mm • Medium 6.6 mm • Long 7-8 mm • Types • Japonica; short, stiff, & lodging-resistant stalks. • Indica; taller weaker stems that lodge under heavy fert.

  5. Commercial Classes • Maturity • Early = 120 – 129 days • Mid season = 130 – 139 days • Late = 140 or more days

  6. Cultural Practices • Conventional Tillage • Disc • Planed • Laser – 2/10th grade • Levee • Water Culture • Field is graded to 0 slope or .01-.02 slope • Rolled to create surface texture to prevent seed drift

  7. Cultural Practices • No-Till & Minimum Tillage • The producer must drill in the crop. • Corrugated Tillage • The 2nd. Disking runs the same direction as the irrigation flow. Internal levees are not constructed.

  8. Seeding • Broadcasters • Drills = plant 1-2” deep • Airplanes • **Flood to kill weeds** • Flood 4-6 inches • Soak seeds and then dry • Air = 99-130 lbs/ac, In CA up to 164 lbs/ac

  9. Fertilization • N, 30-100 lbs./ac • The bulk of the fertilizer is done 30-70 days after seeding.

  10. Growth and Development • Rice is a warm season crop, 700F or higher • It does not do well in high humidity, due to disease. • It likes heavy soils • It likes pH ranges between 4.5 & 7.5

  11. Weed management • Flooding • Crop rotation • Herbicides such as Bolero, Ordram, & Londax.

  12. Diseases • Seedling blight • Brown leaf spot • Narrow brown leaf spot • Blast • Stem rot

  13. Insects • Rice stink bug • Rice stalk bore • Sugarcane bore • Sugarcane beetle

  14. Harvesting • Grain moisture = 23% - 28%

  15. Milling • Rough rice • Parboiled rice • Milled rice • Brown rice • Head rice • Second head rice • Brewer’s rice • Polished rice

  16. Byproducts of milling • Rice hulls • Rice bran • Rice polish • Rice straw • Rice flour

  17. Rice Grades • USDA grades are 1-6 • Grades are determined by; heat damage & paddy kernels, Chalky kernels, Broken kernels, other types, Color, & Minimum milling requirements.

  18. Sub classes • Look at table 20-4