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  1. Computer Application(66611) Engr A.F.M.Mizanur Rahman Chief Instructor(Computer) Narsingdi Polytechnic Institute

  2. I will Discuss about this Subject

  3. Syllabus Description:

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  10. Preliminary Discussion Regarding Computer • This discussion is only for your improving knowledge. Don’t bother about it, Just sit back and relux.

  11. Computer Generation Initially, the generation term was used to distinguish between varying hardware technologies. But nowadays, generation includes both hardware and software, which together make up an entire computer system. There are totally five computer generations known till date. First Generation(ENIAC,EDVAC) Second Generation Third Generation(IBM360) Forth Generation(Star 1000, DEC 10) Fifth Generation(Desktop, Laptop)

  12. First Generation The period of first generation: 1946-1959. Vacuum tube based Unreliable  Supported machine language only  Very costly  Generated lot of heat  Slow input and output devices Unreliable  Supported machine language only  Very costly  Generated lot of heat  Slow input and output devices

  13. Second Generation •  The period of second generation: 1959-1965. Transistor based. • Supported machine language only •  Reliable in comparison to first generation computers •  Smaller size as compared to first generation computers •  Generated less heat as compared to first generation computers •  Consumed less electricity as compared to first generation computers •  Faster than first generation computers •  Still very costly

  14. Third Generation • The period of third generation: 1965-1971. Integrated Circuit based. • IC used • More reliable in comparison to previous two generations • Smaller size • Generated less heat • Faster • Lesser maintenance • Still costly • A.C needed • Consumed lesser electricity • Supported high-level language

  15. Forth Generation • The period of fourth generation: 1971-1980. VLSI microprocessor based. • VLSI technology used • Very cheap • Portable and reliable • Use of PC's • Very small size • Pipeline processing • No A.C. needed • Concept of internet was introduced • Great developments in the fields of networks

  16. Fifth Generation • The period of fifth generation: 1980-onwards.ULSI microprocessor based • ULSI technology • Development of true artificial intelligence • Development of Natural language processing • Advancement in Parallel Processing • Advancement in Superconductor technology • More user friendly interfaces with multimedia features • Availability of very powerful and compact computers at cheaper rates

  17. The Role of Computers In Business and Industry In Publication Field In Education Field In Government Organizations In Medical Field In Science Field In Entertainment Field

  18. Types of Modern Computers • Personal Computers (Continued) Personal Computers...also known as PC’s...are smaller and less powerful than the others. They are used in homes, schools, and small businesses.

  19. Types of Computers There are 3 main types of PCs • Desktop • Portable (Notebook/Laptop) When portable (notebook/laptop) computers were first created they were HUGE. They weighed around 100 lbs., and were carried in a large luggage suitcase. The creators of the portable (notebook/laptop) computer dreamed that one day it would be the size a notebook or pocket dictionary. With today’s technology, we have been able to accomplish this goal and more.. • Hand-Held

  20. Types of Computers • Supercomputers...are used to process very large amounts of information including processing information to predict hurricanes, satellite images and navigation, and process military war scenarios. • Mainframes...are used by government and businesses to process very large amounts of information. • Mini-Computers...are similar to mainframes...they are used by business and government to process large amounts of information. • Personal Computers (PC)…

  21. Networks • A network is a group of computers that share information and hardware. • The computers are connected together using copper phone wires, fiber optic cables, or radio waves. • Our computers are on a network here at school...Look under the table and see the blue wires that connect your computer to the network. • The internet is many networks around the world that are all connected together to make 1 huge network.

  22. Parts of a Computer • There are two basic parts that make up a computer... Hardware Software

  23. Hardware • Hardware is basically anything that you can touch with your fingers. Computer Case CPU (central processing unit...Pentium chip) Monitor Keyboard & Mouse Disk Drive, Zip Drive, CD-ROM, DVD, Hard Drive Memory (RAM) Speakers Printer

  24. Hardware (Continued) • There are three types/categories of hardware 1. Input Devices 2. Output Devices 3. Storage Devices

  25. Parts of a Computer Storage Devices Hard Disk Flash Drive CD-ROM DVD-ROM

  26. Parts of a Computer Input Devices (Keyboard, Mouse, etc.) Output Devices (Monitor, Speakers, etc.) Central Processing Unit (CPU) and memory Motherboard (Circuit Board) Expansion Cards (Video Card, Sound Card, or NIC) Hard Drive Ports and Connections (USB, Firmware, etc.)

  27. Understand the function of Input Devices • Input basically means getting data into the computer to be processed. Keyboard: The set of typewriter-like keys you use to type information into the computer. Touch Screen, Bar Code Reader, Scanner Microphone, Joystick

  28. Mouse • Mouse: The device that controls the movement of the pointer displayed on the screen. You use the mouse pointer to select and open items on the computer. Parts of the Mouse: At the top of the mouse, there are two major buttons: the left button and the right button. (Some mice also have a small roller which can also be used as a button but generally not.) The most common mouse operation is pointing and clicking. Simply move the mouse so that the cursor is pointing to the object you want to select, and then click the left mouse button once. Pointing and clicking is an effective way to select menu items, directories, and files.

  29. Light pen Light pen is a pointing device which is similar to a pen. It is used to select a displayed menu item or draw pictures on the monitor screen. It Consists of a photocell and an optical system placed in a small tube. When the tip of a light pen is moved over the monitor screen and pen button is pressed, its photocell sensing element detects the screen location and sends the corresponding signal to the CPU.

  30. Track Ball Track ball is an input device that is mostly used in notebook or laptop computer, instead of a mouse. This is a ball which is half inserted and by moving fingers on ball, pointer can be moved. Since the whole device is not moved, a track ball requires less space than a mouse. A track ball comes in various shapes like a ball, a button and a square.

  31. Output Devices • Speakers • Headphones • Monitor • Plotter • Etc.

  32. Output Devices • Output basically means getting data out of the computer. Monitor: Similar to a television, the monitor displays text, pictures, and other items from the computer on a screen.

  33. Printers • Printer is an output device, which is used to print information on paper. There are two types of printers  Impact Printers  Non-Impact Printers • Impact Printers:The impact printers print the characters by striking them on the ribbon which is then pressed on the paper. • Non-impact printers print the characters without using ribbon. These printers print a complete page at a time so they are also called as Page Printers. These printers are of two types •  Laser Printers •  Inkjet Printers

  34. Storage devices are both input and output devices in one. A storage device is a place to keep data that has been processed so that it can be retrieved at a later time to be used again. Hard Disk Floppy Disk CD’s, DVD’s Magnetic Tape Flash Memory, Jump Drive

  35. Parts of a Computer Storage Devices Hard Disk Flash Drive CD-ROM DVD-ROM

  36. Software • Software is the programs and applications that tell the computer what to do and how to look. • Computer programmers write the codes/instructions that make-up software applications/programs. • HTML is a type of computer programming language that allows programmers to make web pages. • The next 2 slides show what HTML codes look like and the web page the codes produce.

  37. Two Types of Software • Application Software • Operating System Software

  38. Operating System Software • Directs all the activities and sets all the rules for how the hardware and software will work together. Examples would be: DOS, Windows 95, 98, ME, NT, XP, Vista, Windows 7,8,10, Unix, Linux, MAC system OS 6,7,8,9,10, etc

  39. Command Line Operating Systems DOS is an example of a command line operating system. On the next slide, Notice that there are no: • Icons (pictures) • Colors • Mouse Pointer • Buttons • You have to memorize commands in order to use this text based operating system.

  40. Operating Systems: GUI • GUI stands for Graphical User Interface Uses pictures (icons) to represent files, folders, disk drives, modems, printers, etc. GUI’s were created to make using a computer easier, more interesting, non-threatening to inexperienced users. A mouse allows users to point at something and click to make it work. With command line you have to have all of the commands to make your programs work. Here is an example of a GUI

  41. Application Software • Programs that work with operating system software to help the computer to do specific types of work.

  42. Application Software • There are six basic types of application software...

  43. Application Software 1. Business software: word processors, spreadsheets, and database programs. 2. Communication software: allows computers to communicate with other computers: fax software, Novell NetWare, AOL, Modem Software. 3. Graphics software: software that allows users to create and manipulate graphics...Photoshop, Print Shop, etc.

  44. Application Software 4. Education and Reference software: Programs that help teach new material and ideas, and programs that can be used to find information...Encarta, Worldbook Encyclopedia, Jumpstart Kindergarten, MicroType. 5. Entertainment and Leisure software...Warcraft, Age of Empires, Barbie Design Center, Mrs. Pacman, Solitair 6. Integrated software: Combines several types of software into one program or package...Quicken (Spreadsheet/data base/communications/reference) or Print Shop (Graphics/Word processor).

  45. Software

  46. Now we are in Subjective topics, Let’s start with Microsoft office