Traditional Instruments of China By: Emily Wong email@example.com With many thanks to: Community engagement program of 2011 Professor: Lisa Yun Graduate Assistant: Sandy woo Department of Asian and Asian American studies Binghamton university
Note to Teacher: Please obtain a copy of Music in China by Frederick Lau with CD attached for access to recordings of specific instruments and a concise introduction to Chinese music.
Note to Teacher: A test run was conducted on about 20 students and their parents from the Chinese school run by the Southern Tier Chinese Culture Association in Vestal, NY. Their ages ranged from 7-9. Guest performer on the zheng was Fuxin Bao.
History of Traditional Chinese Instruments An Brief Introduction to China’s very long History and Chinese musical instruments
Chinese History China’s history spans over 4,000 years!
Traditional Chinese Instruments Traditional Chinese instruments themselves have a very long history which lasted over 7,000 years!
Traditional Chinese Instruments Over 7,000 years!
Traditional Chinese Instruments Some of the earliest instruments date back to 6000 B.C. and were made of animal bones!
Traditional Chinese Instruments The oldest instruments found were flutes made of animal leg bones.
China’s Dynasties c 21st-16th century BC Xia
China’s Dynasties 1700-1027 BC Shang
China’s Dynasties • 1027-771 BC Western Zhou • 770-221 BC Eastern Zhou • 770-476 BC Spring and Autumn period • 475-221 BC Warring States period
China’s Dynasties 221-207 BC Qin
China’s Dynasties 206 BC-AD 9 Western Han AD 9-24 Xin AD 25-220 Eastern Han
China’s Dynasties • AD 220-280 Three Kingdoms (San Guo) • 220-265 Wei • 221-263 Shu • 229-280 Wu
China’s Dynasties AD 265-316 Western Jin AD 317-420 Eastern Jin
China’s Dynasties AD 420-588 Southern and Northern Dynasties • 420-588 Southern Dynasties • 420-478 Liu Song • 479-501 Qi (Ch'i) • 502-556 Liang • 557-588 Chen • 386-588 Northern Dynasties • 386-533 Northern Wei • 534-549 Eastern Wei • 535-557 Western Wei • 550-577 Northern Qi (Ch'i) • 557-588 Northern Zhou (Chou)
China’s Dynasties AD 581-617 Sui
China’s Dynasties AD 618-907 Tang
China’s Dynasties • AD 907-960 Five Dynasties • AD 907-979 Ten Kingdoms
China’s Dynasties 916-1125 Liao
China’s Dynasties • 960-1279 Song • 960-1127 Northern Song • 1127-1279 Southern Song
China’s Dynasties 1038-1227 Western Xia
China’s Dynasties 1115-1234 Jin
China’s Dynasties 1279-1368 Yuan
China’s Dynasties 1368-1644 Ming
China’s Dynasties 1644-1911 Qing
China’s Dynasties 1912-present Modern China
Traditional Chinese Instruments But only a few dynasties had a large effect on the making of traditional Chinese instruments.
Traditional Chinese Instruments • During the Xia period, instruments were mainly comprised of drums, bone flutes, bronze bells and stone chimes. • Were important in rituals and dancing.
The flutes and chimes became more complex during the Shang and Zhou Dynasties with the rise of the Bronze Age. • Development of stringed instruments that used silk strings.
Traditional Chinese Instruments • The next period of important changes was during the Qin to Han dynasties. • Creation of instruments similar to the Western lute. • Linked to flourish in trade.
Traditional Chinese Instruments During the Wei to Tang dynasties, percussion instruments, or drum-family instruments, became popular along with woodwinds and fiddles.
Traditional Chinese Instruments The last period of change in Chinese instruments was the rise in popularity of fiddles or bowed instruments and plucked lutes starting from the Song dynasty to the current period.
Traditional Chinese Instruments Can find influences from the Silk Road, which was a major trade route between China and other civilizations.
Traditional Chinese Instruments A popular phrase used to describe the instruments is “silk and bamboo”.
Traditional Chinese Instruments • 中国音乐 (Zhōngguóyīnyuè) or 国乐 (guóyuè) for short – “music of the nation” • Describes music that is written for Chinese instruments.
Traditional Chinese Instruments Some of the songs have ancient origins and legends behind them.
Traditional Chinese Instruments Legends states that during the Three Kingdom’s period, a Chinese general named Zhuge Liang (ZhūgěLiàng) was able to protect his city by playing the guqin. His calm attitude fooled the enemy army into thinking that they would be ambushed inside.
Traditional Chinese Instruments Some songs are also about scenes from history or nature.
Traditional Chinese Instruments Ambush from Ten Sides, also known in Chinese as 十面埋伏(shímiànmáifú), describes a ferocious fight scene from a battle between the Chu and Han armies in 202 BC. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JtrthXXmKgA
The Eight Tones 八音 （bāyīn) The term was often used to describe what the instruments were made of.