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Socio-Behavioral Aspects of Emergent Forms of Communication. Christine Bevc and Sophia Liu Natural Hazards Center University of Colorado at Boulder. October 7, 2005 UCIrvine-RESCUE. Disaster Research. Emerged following the 1920 study of the Halifax disaster

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socio behavioral aspects of emergent forms of communication

Socio-Behavioral Aspectsof Emergent Forms of Communication

Christine Bevc and Sophia Liu

Natural Hazards Center

University of Colorado at Boulder

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

disaster research
Disaster Research
  • Emerged following the 1920 study of the Halifax disaster
  • Developed after WWII with the Cold War and threat of nuclear exchange
  • 1970s – First assessment
  • 25 years later – Second assessment

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

definitions
Definitions
  • Disasters
    • Events concentrated in time and space
  • Hazards
    • Extreme natural events that may affect different places at different times
    • Disasters occur when hazards combine with vulnerability
    • Hazard + Vulnerability = Disaster

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

vulnerability
Vulnerability
  • Progression from root causes, dynamic pressures, and unsafe conditions
  • Women
  • Children
  • Elderly
  • Minorities
  • Also vulnerability is created by
    • Language
    • Social and economic inequality

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

types of disasters
Types of Disasters
  • Natural
  • Technological/”Man-made”
  • Human-Induced
  • Should focus rather on more abstract properties of disasters
  • Look at how the public, organizations, and communities respond to events

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

research areas
Behavior

Communication

Predictions/Warning Systems

Emergency management

Engineering

GIS/Remote Sensing

Impacts

Land use/planning

Mitigation

Preparedness

Recovery

Relief and rehabilitation

Technological aids

Theory

Vulnerability

Gender

Societal influences

Research Areas

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

new orleans
New Orleans
  • Established by French in 1718
  • Entered the US in 1802 – Louisiana Purchase
  • Port city
  • Diversity – Racial and economic

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

disaster subculture
Disaster Subculture
  • Adjustments used by residents to cope with past and future disasters
    • 1965 – Hurricane Betsy (4)
    • 1969 – Hurricane Camille (5)
    • 1992 – Hurricane Andrew (4)
    • 2004 – Hurricane Pam
    • 2004 – Hurricane Ivan ()

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

scenarios predictions
Scenarios/Predictions
  • 2001 Scientific American
  • 2002 Times-Picayune
  • 2004 National Geographic
  • 2004 Natural Hazards Observer
  • 2001 FEMA Report*

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

hurricane katrina
Hurricane Katrina

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

hurricane katrina1
Hurricane Katrina
  • Largest dislocation of the US population in 150 years
  • 95,316 evacuees in 863 shelters throughout the country
  • Every state has declared a state of emergency
  • 3rd Deadliest Storm in US History

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

communication in the aftermath
Communication in the Aftermath
  • Vital when infrastructures are down
  • Formal communications
    • High-level emergency responders
  • Informal communications
    • Grass roots level of the public

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

emergent forms of communication
Emergent Forms of Communication
  • Handheld devices and mobile phones
    • Email, SMS, MMS
  • Internet
    • Forums, blogs, wikis, podcasting

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

emergent uses in recent crises
Emergent Uses in Recent Crises
  • 2001 SARS epidemic in China (Law & Peng 2004)
  • December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami
  • July 7, 2005 London Tube bombings

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

response to hurricane katrina
Response to Hurricane Katrina
  • Blogs provided detailed info of neighborhoods
  • Missing persons websites
  • Disorganization of infrastructure at local/state/federal level
  • Various forms of citizen journalism or participatory journalism
  • Democratization of the news process

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

previous communication
Previous Communication
  • Radio communications
  • Ham radios orAmateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES)
  • Television stations
  • News services
  • Message boards
  • Low or no-tech means of communication

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

evolutions of communication and technologies
Evolutions ofCommunication and Technologies
  • The Public
    • Victims, survivors, volunteers, humanitarians, observers, etc.
  • Impacted / Disaster Zones
    • Blurring due to displacement
  • Blurring due to the evolution ofemergent communication tools

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

disaster relief in the post internet age and a call for hardware
“Disaster relief in the post-Internet age, and a call for hardware”
  • Centrality of IT to disaster relief
  • 2 basic social networking problems
    • Rebuilding shattered social networks
    • Weaving permanently displaced families and individuals into existing social networks in new locales
  • Obtain hardware donations
    • Create and host pages of links & info for shelters

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

katrinahelp wiki
KatrinaHelp Wiki

It represents a clear and direct effort at helping coordination, communication, and cooperation for rescue, recovery, and relief efforts.

KatrinaHelp Wiki

http://katrinahelp.info/wiki/index.php/Main_Page

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

craigslist forum on katrina relief
Craigslist Forum on Katrina Relief

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

craigslist job search for katrina
Craigslist Job Search for “Katrina”

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

nola com
NOLA.com

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

scipionus com
Scipionus.com

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

missing persons websites
Missing Persons Websites
  • Hurricane “I’m OK” Registry
  • Hurricane Katrina Survivor Locator
  • Other dozens of sites
  • Is there some type of categorization scheme and temporal analysis with this outdated info?

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

standard universal notification warning systems
Standard & UniversalNotification Warning Systems
  • “All Hazards” response
  • Common Alerting Protocol (CAP)
  • Emergency Email Network
  • Disaster Management Interoperability Services (DMI-Services)

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

future of communication technologies
Future of Communication & Technologies
  • Larger ecology of communication activities by the worldwide public
  • Humanitarian relief in conjunction with notification and warning systems
    • Victims become active participants
  • Encourage openness of communication

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

maybe not what they wanted to hear
“Maybe Not What They Wanted to Hear”
  • How do we leverage digital convergence to get the most capability, reliability and reach for all modes of emergency communication?
  • Need a more dynamic spectrum management to create more efficient ways of organizing, identifying and prioritizing communications
  • Need independent sources of information and planning for our future emergency infrastructure
  • We can no longer afford an intermittent series of post-disaster quick-fix programs for emergency communications

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

reflecting back on recent crises
Reflecting Back on Recent Crises
  • Connect the public, academia, non-profits, and open source communities
  • How feasible is a truly seamless communications network
  • Difficulty of collaborating and replacing existing equipment

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

final thoughts
Final Thoughts
  • What role is IT playing in any of the media reports in the response efforts?
  • What role is the web playing in this? How are those that are computer illiterate getting help or are they seriously disadvantaged?
  • How do you collect data from websites? How do you track them, record data, and analyze this type of data?
  • How can the interface between emergency response agencies and the public be better organized and encourage two-way communication and participation?

October 7, 2005

UCIrvine-RESCUE

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