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Organelles continued

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  1. Organelles continued

  2. Cell Membrane • Location • Surrounds the cell • Structure • Thin and flexible • Lipid bilayer with proteins • Function • Support and protect the cell • Controls what gets in and out of the cell

  3. Cell Wall • Location • Surrounds the cell in plants, algae, and fungi • Outside the cell membrane • Structure • Made from fibers of carbohydrates and proteins • Cellulose in plants • Function • Support and protect

  4. Nucleus • Location • Inside the cell in the cytoplasm • Structure • Nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, nucleolus, and chromosomes • Function • Controls most cell processes contains DNA • Making proteins

  5. Chromatin/Chromosomes • Location • Inside the nucleus • Structure • Chromatin: DNA bound proteins • Chromosomes: condensed chromatin--threadlike • Function • Contain genetic information passed from generation to generation

  6. Nucleolus • Location • Inside the nucleus • Structure • Small dense region • Function • Assemble ribosomes

  7. Nuclear Envelope • Location • Surrounding the nucleus • Structure • Double layer membrane with thousands of pores • Function • Send RNA and other information through the cell

  8. Ribosomes • Location • In the cytoplasm and on rough endoplasmic reticulum • Structure • Small particles made of RNA and proteins • Function • Produce proteins

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Location • In cytoplasm • Structure • Internal membrane system • Continuation of the outer nuclear membrane • Function • Assemble components of the cell and modify proteins • Smooth: synthesis of lipids and membrane proteins • Rough: synthesis of other proteins (has ribosomes)

  10. Golgi Apparatus • Location • In the cytoplasm • Structure • Membrane bound structure • Stack of membrane-bound vesicles • Function • Important for packaging macromolecules for transport to other parts of the cell.

  11. Lysosomes • Location • In the cytoplasm • Common in animal cells, but not in plant cells • Structure • Small membrane organelles containing hydrolytic enzymes necessary for digestion. • Function • Break down macromolecules and organelles

  12. Vacuoles • Location • In the cytoplasm • Large in plant cells • Structure • Membrane bound sac • Function • Plays role in digestion and release of cellular waste.

  13. Chloroplasts • Location • In plant cells and other organism, in the cytoplasm • Structure • Bounded by 2 enveloped membranes • Contain large stacks of photosynthetic membranes • Function • Contains chlorophyll—green color of plants • Photosynthesis

  14. Mitochondria • Location • In the cytoplasm • Structure • Enclosed by 2 membranes • Function • Make energy for growth, development, and movement. • Powerhouse of the cell

  15. IV. Cell Shape and Size • Maintenance of shape 1. In plants: cell wall 2. In animals: cytoskeleton • Cytoskeleton - consists of 2 types of structures 1. Microtubules: hollow tubes made of tubulin

  16. a. Cilia: short, hair-like projections b. Flagella: long, whip-like projections

  17. 2. Microfilaments: NOT hollow – 2 twisted chains of proteins (like a rope) • Size of Cells - can vary from 1 micrometer (bacteria) to 1 meter (nerve cell)