1 / 13

EA C451

EA C451. Vishal Gupta. Agenda: Mobile IP. Mobile Addressing. The biggest challenge for mobility lies in allowing a host to retain its address without requiring routers to learn host-specific routes.

Download Presentation

EA C451

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. EA C451 Vishal Gupta

  2. Agenda: Mobile IP

  3. Mobile Addressing • The biggest challenge for mobility lies in allowing a host to retain its address without requiring routers to learn host-specific routes. • Mobile IP solves the problem by allowing a single computer to hold two addresses simultaneously. • The first address, which can be thought of as the computer's primary address, is permanent and fixed. It is the address applications and transport protocols use. • The second address, which can be thought of as a secondary address, is temporary - it changes as the computer moves, and is valid only while the computer visits a given location. • Because it requires considerable overhead after each move, mobile IP is intended for situations in which a host moves infrequently and remains at a given location for a relatively long period of time.

  4. Mobile Addressing • A mobile device has two addresses: Home address and care of address. • Applications on a mobile computer always use the home address. • Care of address is never known or used by applications. Instead, only IP software on the mobile and agents on the home or foreign networks use the temporary address. • There are two types of care-of addresses: 1) Co-located care-of address. 2) Foreign agent care-of address.

  5. The following steps provide a rough outline of operation of the Mobile IP protocol: • Mobility agents (i.e., foreign agents and home agents) advertise their presence via Agent Advertisement messages. • A mobile node receives these Agent Advertisements and determines whether it is on its home network or a foreign network. • When the mobile node detects that it is located on its home network, it operates without mobility services. Rather, If returning to its home network from being registered elsewhere, the mobile node deregisters with its home agent, through exchange of a Registration Request and Registration Reply message with it. • When a mobile node detects that it has moved to a foreign network, it obtains a care-of address on the foreign network. • The care-of address can either be determined from a foreign agent’s advertisements (a foreign agent care-of address), or by some external assignment mechanism such as DHCP (a co-located care-of address).

  6. The mobile node operating away from home then registers its new care-of address with its home agent through exchange of a Registration Request and Registration Reply message with it. • Datagrams sent to the mobile node’s home address are intercepted by its home agent, tunneled by the home agent to the mobile node’s care-of address, received at the tunnel endpoint (either at a foreign agent or at the mobile node itself), and finally delivered to the mobile node. • In the reverse direction, datagrams sent by the mobile node are generally delivered to their destination using standard IP routing mechanisms, not necessarily passing through the home agent.

  7. Foreign Agent Discovery • The process of finding a foreign agent uses the ICMP router discovery mechanism, which requires each router to periodically send an ICMP router advertisement message. • Type: Set to 16. • The LENGTH field specifies the size of the extension message in octets, excluding the TYPE and LENGTH octets. • The LIFETIME field specifies the maximum amount of time in seconds that the agent is willing to accept registration requests, with all 1s indicating infinity. • SEQUENCE NUM specifies a sequence number for the message to allow a recipient to determine when a message is lost.

  8. Foreign Agent Discovery • CODE field defines a specific feature of the agent as listed

  9. Registration It is the method by which mobile nodes: • request forwarding services when visiting a foreign network • inform their home agent of their current care-of address • renew a registration which is due to expire, and/or • deregister when they return home. • Registration messages exchange information between a mobile node, (optionally) a foreign agent, and the home agent. • All registration messages are sent via UDP. Agents listen to well-known port 434; requests may be sent from an arbitrary source port to destination port 434. • An agent reverses the source and destination points, so a reply is sent from source port 434 to the port the requester used.

  10. Registration Message Format • The TYPE field specifies whether the message is a registration request (1) or a registration reply (3). • The LIFETIME field specifies the number of seconds the registration is valid (a zero requests immediate deregistration, and all 1s specifies an infinite lifetime).

  11. The HOME ADDRESS, HOME AGENT, and CARE-OF ADDRESS fields specify the two IP addresses of the mobile and the address of its home agent. • IDENTIFICATION field contains a 64-bit number generated by the mobile that is used to match requests with incoming replies and to prevent the mobile from accepting old messages. • Bits of the FLAGS field are used to specify forwarding details as listed:

  12. Communication With A Foreign Agent • A foreign agent can assign one of its IP addresses for use as a care-of address. • Doing so causes a problem because it means a mobile will not have a unique address on the foreign network. • So, for communication, it is required for a alternative scheme for address binding. • In particular, when a mobile host sends to a foreign agent, the mobile is allowed to use its home address as an IP source address. • Also, when a foreign agent sends a datagram to a mobile, the agent is allowed to use the mobile's home address as an IP destination address. • But, an agent is not allowed to ARP for the address. • So, while registration only, an agent must record the mobile's hardware address and use it for future communication.

  13. Datagram Transmission and Reception • Once it has registered, a mobile host on a foreign network can communicate with an arbitrary computer. • To do so, the mobile creates a datagram that has the computer's address in the destination field and the mobile's home address in the source field. • The datagram now follows the shortest path from the foreign network to the destination. • However, a reply will not follow the shortest path directly to the mobile. Instead, the reply will travel to the mobile's home network. • Mobile IP introduces a routing inefficiency known as the 2X problem that occurs when a mobile visits a foreign network far from its home and then communicates with a computer near the foreign site.

More Related