Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking. Matt Baldock, Deputy Prosecuting Attorney Paula Skomski, ARNP, SANE-A. Objectives. Define Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking State the forms and prevalence of DMST within the U.S. State the prevalence of DMST locally and regionally
Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking Matt Baldock, Deputy Prosecuting Attorney Paula Skomski, ARNP, SANE-A
Objectives • Define Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking • State the forms and prevalence of DMST within the U.S. • State the prevalence of DMST locally and regionally • State risk factors for victimization • Identify characteristics of trafficked youth • Describe how to intervene and refer for services
What is it? • Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) generally refers to the sexual abuse of minors for economic gain. • Prostitution • Production of pornography • Drug dependence • “Survival sex”
Scope of Problem 100,000 - 300,000 American children are victims of Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking (DMST) at any given time annually. (U. S. Department of Justice, 2010; National Institute of Justice, 2007; Shared Hope International, 2009)
Scope of the Problem • Seattle/King County : Estimates 300 – 500 (Boyer, 2008) • Snohomish County: Estimates 30-50 • No good empirical data: This is improving with local agencies now tracking victim contacts • Up to 70% of street youth are CSEC victims (Greene, Ennett, and Ringwalt)
The Victims • 13 years old is average age when victims first introduced into to commercial exploitation • Targeted • Runaways or “throwaways” • Prior abuse • Mostly female
48 admitted victims 27 between 15 and 18 years old
“The juvenile prostitute is not seen by society as a worthy victim, while the sexually-abused child is. We must realize they are one and the same.” Identifying and Combating Juvenile Prostitution Nat’l. Assoc. of Counties, Inc. 1987
The Paradigm Shift Prostitute Defendant Runaway Street Kid VICTIM
The Law in Washington • Trafficking • Class A Felony, 8-18 years • Commercial Sexual Abuse of a Minor • Class B Felony, 2-10 years • Promoting Commercial Sexual Abuse of a Minor • Class A Felony, 8-26 years
The Law Enforcement Approach • Multi-Disciplinary Model • Advocacy • Medical Care • Housing/shelter • Counseling
Risk Factors • History of sexual abuse • This is the number one risk factor • Runaways • Foster Care • Low Self Esteem • Living in high crime areas • Poverty
Additional Risk Factors • Walk to school or to the store alone • Own or have access to a computer • Are attracted to consumer goods • Desire to develop romantic relationships • Feel misunderstood • Fight with their parents • Sometimes feel their parents don’t care • Want more independence • Test boundaries and take risks (GEMS, 2009)
Entry to DMST • Seduction and coercion • Peer recruitment • Internet enticement through chat rooms, social networking, or profile-sharing sites • False advertising for “modeling,” “acting,” or “dancing” opportunities • Violence and force • Parents selling children • Kidnapping (GEMS, 2009)
Recruitment • Befriend potential victim • Offer gifts, shelter, protection • Develop trust • Isolate from family and friends • Develop sexual relationship • Manipulate into sex with friends • Sells her to others • Gang involvement • Lured in by “The Man, The Money or The Life” (Shared Hope International, 2010; Smith et al., 2009)
Identifying DMST Youth • Talk of a much older boyfriend • Money, cell phones, make-up, nails, hair that isn’t explained • Tattoos • Visible signs of abuse • Transformation of physical appearance • Lack of ID or false ID • Staying in motels or having motel keys • Travel/Vacations to other areas • Sexually explicit online profile • Language
Needs of DMST Youth • Safety • Housing • Health care • Counseling • Education • Legal Assistance • Re-integration (Boyer, 2008; Choi, et al., 2009; Clawson, 2010; Leitch & Snow, 2010; Lloyd & Orman, 2010; Logan, et al, 2009; Mukasey, et al., 2007; NCMEC, 2002; Scott & Harper, 2006; HHS, 2011; Zimmerman, et al., 2008)
Interacting • Provide a safe environment • Address immediate needs • Don’t be judgmental • Gain trust and confidence (GEMS, 2009; Shared Hope International, 2010; Smith et al., 2009)
I am not a victim! • There is a psychological bond between the pimp and the victim called trauma bonding (Stockholm Syndrome) • The result is • Failure to self-identify as a victim • Repeated returns to pimp • Denial of violence/abuse/exploitation • Two primary physiological states • Hyper-arousal: Anger, panic, tantrums • Hypo-arousal: Flat affect, dissociation, daydreaming, inattention
Indicators of Trauma Bonding • Denies violence when it is obvious it is occurring • Believe they have some control over abuse • Self-blame for situation and abuse • Hyper-vigilant to pimps needs • Sees world from the pimps perspective
Be prepared to deal with… • Ambivalence • You can’t talk them into changing so don’t try • Difficult behavior • Dishonesty • Recantations • Don’t get frustrated • They have been manipulated by the pimp to act the way they do and to not trust people in roles of authority
What is helpful • Meet the client where they are and follow their lead • Meet basic needs • Let them know that regardless of their choices you will support them • Validate their strengths and skills • Ask what they would find helpful now
Intervening • Gather identifying information • Talk with victim about a safety plan • Call the Hotline 425-258-9037 (Snohomish County) • National Hotline 1-888-3737-888
Summary Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking is a problem in every community which is complex and requires a coordinated community response. To combat this problem it is important to know the risk factors, signs of possible victimization, local resources to help and how to safely intervene.
Contact Information Matt Baldock email@example.com Paula Skomski firstname.lastname@example.org
References Boyer, D. (2008). Who pays the price? Assessment of youth involvement in prostitution in Seattle. Seattle, WA: Boyer Research. Clawson, H. (2010). Study of HHS programs serving human trafficking victims. http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/07/HumanTrafficking/ Cole, H. (2008). Human trafficking implications for the role of the advanced practice forensic nurse. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 14 (6), 462-70. Coy, M. (2009). Moved around like bags of rubbish nobody wants: How multiple placement moves can make young women vulnerable to sexual exploitation. Child Abuse Review, 18, 254-66. Dovydaitis, T. (2010). Human trafficking: The role of the health care provider. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 55 (5), 462-67. Girls Educational & Mentoring Services. (2009). GEMS. http://www.gems-girls.org
References Kalergis, K. (2009). A Passionate practice: Addressing the needs of commercially sexually exploited youth. Journal of Women and Social Work, 24 (3), 315-24. Kotrla, K. (2010). Domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States. Social Work, 55 (2), 181-7. Lebloch, E., & King, S. (2006). Child sexual exploitation: A partnership response and model intervention. Child Abuse Review, 15, 362-372. Leitch, L., & Snow, M. (2010). Intervene: Identifying and Responding to America's Prostituted Youth. Vancouver, WA: Shared Hope International. Lloyd, R., & Orman, A. (2010). Training Manual on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC). New York: Girls Educational and Mentoring Services (GEMS). Logan, T., Walker, R., & Hunt, G. (2009). Understanding human trafficking in the United States. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 10 (1), 3-30.
References Mitchell, K., Finkelhor, D., & Wolak, J. (2010). Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: Findings from the national juvenile prostitution study. Child Maltreatment, 15 (1), 18-36 Moynihan, B. (2006). The high cost of human trafficking. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 2 (2), 100-101. Mukasey, M., Daley, C., & Hagy, D. (2007). Commercial sexual exploitation of children: What do we know and what do we know about it? Washington DC: U.S. Dept of Justice. National Institute of Justice. (2007, October 25). Human Trafficking. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/topics/crime/human-trafficking/ Sabella, D. (2011). The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking. American Journal of Nursing, 111 (2), 28-37. Scott, S., & Harper, Z. (2006). Meeting the needs of sexually exploited young people: The challenge of conducting policy-relevant research. Child Abuse Review, 15, 313-25.
References Shared Hope International. (2010). Shared Hope International. http://www.sharedhope.org Smith, L., Vardaman, S., & Snow, M. (2009). The national report: Domestic minor sex trafficking - America's prostituted youth. Vancouver, WA: Shared Hope International. The Nest Foundation. (2011). Playground. Retrieved February 18, 2011, from The Nest Foundation: http://nestfoundation.org/ U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011, January 31). Administration for Children and Families. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/trafficking/ U. S. Department of Justice. (2010). Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section. http://www.justice.gov/criminal/ceos/index.html
References U. S. Department of State. (2010). Trafficking in Persons Report. Washington DC: U. S. Department of State. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2007). Senior policy operating group on trafficking in persons- Subcommittee on domestic trafficking final report. Washington DC: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2011). Online Edition - Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/electronic-toolkit-to-combat-trafficking-in-persons---index.html#6 Zimmerman, C., Hossain, M., Yun, K., Gajdadziev, V., Guzun, N., Tchomarova, M., et al. (2008). The health of trafficked women: A survey of women entering post trafficking services in Europe. American Journal of Public Health, 98 (1), 55-9.