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The Ferment of Reform and Culture (1790-1860) PowerPoint Presentation
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The Ferment of Reform and Culture (1790-1860)

The Ferment of Reform and Culture (1790-1860)

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The Ferment of Reform and Culture (1790-1860)

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  1. The Ferment of Reform and Culture (1790-1860) Chapter 15

  2. A. Reviving Religion • Puritanical ideas dying in early 1800s • T. Paine’s Age of Reason & Deism • New denominations • Unitarians • Loving, one-person God

  3. 2nd Great Awakening • Reaction against growing liberalism in religion

  4. Evangelical protestants & the 2nd Great Awakening • Camp meetings & revivals • Charles Grandison Finney • Female movement- led to other movements • Baptists and Methodists

  5. B. Denominational Diversity • Burned-Over District- Western NY • Hellfire and damnation • Millerites – date of Christ’s return? • Differences in classes & regions • Denominations split over slavery

  6. C. A Desert Zion in Utah • 1830- Joseph Smith & the golden tablets • Mormons hated by many • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints • Illinois

  7. 1844- Smith killed • Brigham Young- 1846-1847- Utah

  8. D. Free Schools for a Free People • Many against free public educ. • Argument for Universal manhood suffrage • Early schools & teachers • Early opponents of public education, why the change?

  9. Horace Mann – “father of the American common school” • Noah Webster – the dictionary guy • William McGuffey – school reader

  10. E. Higher Goals for Higher Learning • State-supported universities • UNC-1795 • UVA- 1819 • Women’s higher education • Travelling lecture series (lyceums) • Magazines

  11. F. An Age of Reform • Old Puritan vision • Women mainly involved (suffrage) • Debtor’s prison • Criminal codes- prisons • Aubrun reform • Peace Movement

  12. Dorothea Dix

  13. G. Demon Rum- The Old Deluder • Threatened safety of women & children • American Temperance Society- 1826 • Moderate reform vs. prohibition • Realistic effects

  14. H. Women in Revolt • Women considered “perpetual minors” • Different gender roles • Cult of domesticity- glorified her role

  15. Seneca Falls • Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony • Sarah and Angelina Grimke • Women’s Rights Convention (1848) • Seneca Falls • Declaration of Sentiments • abolition

  16. I. Wilderness Utopias • Cooperative/communistic societies • Robert Owen- New Harmony, IN (1825) – British socialist • Brook Farm, MA- 1841 – first secular • New York’s Oneida Community- 1848 • John Humphrey Noyes – silverware • “complex marriage”; “perfection”

  17. Shakers- Mother Ann Lee (1770s) • Amana Colonies - Pietism • Fourier’s Phalanxes

  18. K. Artistic Achievments • Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello & UVA • Artists went to England • Hudson River School of Art • Daguerreotype- 1839 • Music

  19. L. The Blossoming of a National Literature • Knickerbocker Group • Washington Irving • James Fenimore Cooper- Last of the Mohicans • William Cullen Bryant- poet

  20. M. Transcendentalism • Truth comes from an “inner light” • Individualism & self-reliance • Simplistic beauty of nature • Ralph Waldo Emerson- poet & essay writer • Henry David Thoreau- Walden, Civil Disobedience • Walt Whitman- Leaves of Grass

  21. O. Literary Individualists & Dissenters • Edgar Allen Poe- The Raven, The Gold Bug, The Fall of the House of Usher • Nathaniel Hawthorne- The Scarlet Letter • Herman Melville- Moby Dick

  22. P. Portrayers of the Past • Early American Historians • George Bancroft • William H. Prescott • Francis Parkman • “northern” histories

  23. Other Reforms • Sylvester Graham – whole wheat bread for good digestion – Graham Cracker • Curb lustful desires via diet • Amelia Bloomer

  24. What motivated reformers? • Tyler (1944) – idealistic humanitarians • Recent years – desire of upper and middle class citizens to control the masses • Public schools “Americanize” immigrants • Penitentiaries control crime • Control drinking of recent immigrants • More Whigs than Jacksonian Democrats • Dix – reforms would save public money in long run • Most successful reforms had broad support • -for a mix of reasons