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Chapter 16.5 Conservation

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Chapter 16.5 Conservation. KEY CONCEPT Conservation methods can help protect and restore ecosystems. Improving The Environment. If population growth and environmental pollution are not slowed down, they will become limiting factors for our species, as well as other species.

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Chapter 16.5


improving the environment
Improving The Environment

If population growth and environmental pollution are not slowed down, they will become limiting factors for our species, as well as other species.

conservation of natural resources
Conservation of Natural Resources

Conservation involves the protection and wise use of our natural resources.

Natural Resources include the basic things in the natural world






Open Space

wildlife preservation
Wildlife Preservation

Efforts are being made to help endangered species and to protect other forms of wildlife.

Endangered species also have protected habitats provided by wildlife refuges and national parks.

Laws have been passed regulating overhunting and overfishing to protect various species.

sustainable development manages resources for present and future generations
Sustainable development manages resources for present and future generations.
  • Sustainable development meets needs without hurting future generations.
    • resources meet current needs
    • resources will still be available for future use
The timber industry has

started to adopt

sustainable practices.

  • Global fisheries have adopted several sustainable practices.
    • rotation of catches
    • fishing gear review
    • harvest reduction
    • fishing bans
environmental laws
Environmental Laws

Governmental agencies have begun to take responsibility for environmental protection by passing laws to stop pollution.

Freshwater Wetlands Act

Hazardous Waste Disposal Regulations

Air Pollution Control Laws

State Environmental Quality Review Act

Returnable Container Law

Endangered Species Act


The Endangered Species Act works to protect individual species from extinction.

  • A listed species is often called an umbrella species.
    • the habitat in which the species lives must be protected
    • other species are protected because they share the ecosystem
protecting earth s resources helps protect our future
Protecting Earth’s resources helps protect our future.
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970.
  • The EPA develops policies and regulations to protect the environment.
  • Legislation helps to protect the environment and endangered species.
    • Clean Air Act
    • Clean Water Act
    • Endangered Species Act
The National Park Service helps manage public lands.
  • The park system includes over 390 areas, covering 84 million acres.
There are several ways that people can help protect the environment.
  • control population growth
  • protect and maintain ecosystems
  • develop sustainable technology and practices
human impact

Human Impact

Land Resources

Forest Resources

Ocean Resources

Air Resources

Water Resources

Ozone Depletion

Global warming

land resources
Land Resources
  • What happening?
    • Plowing removes the roots that hold the soil in place, increasing the rate of Soil erosion
    • SOIL EROSION – is the wearing away of surface soil by water and wind.
    • Desertification- the process of turning once productive areas into deserts from a combination of farming, overgrazing, and drought.
land resources1
Land Resources
  • Why is it a problem?
    • Soil is a renewable resource, however it can be permanently damaged if mismanaged
  • What is being done?
    • Contour plowing- fields are plowed across the slope of the land to reduce erosion
    • Leaving stems and roots of the previous year’s crops in place to hold soil
forest resources
What is Happening?

Deforestation- loss of forest which leads to severe erosion

Why is this a problem?

Old growth forest can be considered a nonrenewable resource because it would take centuries to reproduce

Forests provide O2 and remove CO2 from the atmosphere

They also store nutrients and provide food and habitat to organisms

Forest Resources
forest resources1
What is being Done?

Tree farms can be planted and harvested efficiently making them fully renewable resources

Tree geneticists are also breeding new, faster-growing tree varieties that produce high- quality wood.

Forest Resources
ocean resources
What is happening?

Overfishing- fish stocks in many fisheries are being harvested faster than they reproduce.

Why is this a problem?

People depend on the ocean as a major source of protein, both from finfish and from shellfish

With the amount of fish caught each year increasing the fish cannot reproduce fast enough to keep up

Ocean Resources
ocean resources1
What is being done?

Limiting the catch of fish

Certain fishing grounds have been temporarily closed

Aquaculture- farming of aquatic organisms

Ocean Resources
air resources
Air Resources
  • What is happening?
    • Smog- a mixture of chemicals that occurs as a gray-brown haze in the atmosphere.
      • This is due primarily to automobile exhausts and industrial emissions
    • Pollutant- a harmful material that can enter the biosphere through air, land or water
      • The burning of fossil fuels can release pollutants that cause smog and other problems in the atmosphere.
air resources1
Air Resources
  • Why is it a problem?
    • This leads to toxins that enter the mouth, nose and lungs causing health problems over the long term.
    • Gases released from the burning of fossil fuels combine with water vapor to form ACID RAIN
    • Acid rain kills plants, and changes the chemistry of soils
  • What is being done?
    • Technology to control emissions from factory smokestacks
    • Strict automobile emission standards and clean air regulations
water resources
Water Resources
  • What is happening?
    • Pollution such as OIL SPILLS threatens our water supply
    • Improperly discarded chemicals can enter streams and rivers
    • Domestic sewage entering or water ways causing increase in bacteria growth
water resources1
Water Resources
  • Why is this a problem?
    • Fresh water is used daily for everything from drinking and washing to watering crops and making steel.
    • Although water is a renewable resource, the total supply of fresh water is limited
  • What is being done?
    • Conservation by: drip irrigation, and consumer awareness of conservation
ozone depletion
What is happening?

Chemicals called CFC’s which were once widely used in aerosol cans, the production of plastics and as coolants in freezers, refrigerators and air conditioners have caused a hole in our ozone layer and this hole is continuing to grow

Ozone Depletion
ozone depletion1
Why is this a problem?

The ozone layer absorbs a great deal of harmful UV rays before it reaches the earth’s surface .

As the ozone layer is depleted UV exposure can cause sunburns, cancer, eye damage and decrease an organism’s resistance to disease

What is being done?

The US has joined many other nations to phase out the use of CFCs

Ozone Depletion
global warming
Global Warming
  • What is happening?
    • An increase in the average temperature of the biosphere.
    • Over the past 120 years global temperatures have risen .5 degrees Celsius
    • CO2 and other gases are being released into the atmosphere and being retained causing more heat.
global warming1
Why is this a problem?

Polar ice caps will continue to melt and could rise enough to flood some low lying coastal areas

Storms and other weather disturbances could become more frequent and severe

Heat favors rodents weeds and insect that reproduce and spread quickly

What is being Done?

Alternate energy sources are being researched to reduce or stop the burning of fossil fuels that release gases into the atmosphere that retain heat.

Global Warming