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Chapter 10. Wide Area Networks. Contents. The need for Wide area networks (WANs) Point-to-point approaches Statistical multiplexing, TDM, FDM approaches Dial-up, T/ DS links X.25, Frame relay, ATM SONET DWDM WANs and TCP/ IP stack. Definition.

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chapter 10

Chapter 10

Wide Area Networks

  • The need for Wide area networks (WANs)
  • Point-to-point approaches
  • Statistical multiplexing, TDM, FDM approaches
  • Dial-up, T/ DS links
  • X.25, Frame relay, ATM
  • DWDM
  • WANs and TCP/ IP stack
  • WANs are physical or logical networks that provide data communications to a large number of independent users. These users are usually spread over a larger geographic area than a LAN
the need for wans
The need for WANs
  • LANs are very effective at connecting computers within offices
  • Links are short, so dedicated link to each PC is not too expensive
  • But many organizations have offices in many states and countries
  • Web pages, email servers are located world-wide
  • As users spread over large distances, link costs become very high
the need for wans contd
The need for WANs (contd.)
  • Broadcast lowers costs of LAN equipment
  • But as number of users increases, CSMA slows down the network significantly
  • As number of network users increases, need mechanisms to merge traffic from multiple users
roads and computer networks
Roads and computer networks
  • There are many similarities between the challenges and design solutions used in road networks and computer networks
  • Neighborhood networks are like LANs
  • Interstate networks are like WANs
local intersection as lan node
Local intersection as LAN node

Stop sign promotes carrier sensing

White car will wait till black car passes

interstate exit as wan node
Interstate exit as WAN node

Existing traffic does not stop for merging traffic

Shared lanes

Merging lane: Exit ramp for local traffic

Merging lane: Entry ramp for local traffic

categories of wans
Categories of WANs
  • Point-to-point
    • Dial-up
    • T/ DS
  • Statistical multiplexing
    • X.25, Frame relay, ATM
  • TDM
    • SONET
  • FDM/ WDM
    • Fiber optics
  • MPLS
point to point wans
Point-to-point WANs

Internet in 1969

  • Earliest WANs used dial-up networking
    • Use phone line to connect to a remote computer
    • Leverage existing communication network
    • End stations perform routing

Phone lines

t ds carriers
T/ DS carriers
  • Phone companies realized business opportunity in providing data services
  • Combined (multiplexed) data carrying capacity of multiple phone lines to provide high speeds
  • Offered as T/ DS carriers
    • T =
    • DS =
t ds carriers1
T/ DS carriers
  • Formally, t-carriers are the physical line, DS is the signal carried by the line
    • Both terms used interchangeably in the industry
  • Offer point-to-point connection like dial-up
statistically multiplexed wans
Statistically multiplexed WANs
  • Point-to-point is very inefficient when network grows
    • No switching within network
    • Inefficient use of bandwidth
  • Statistical multiplexing allows WANs to aggregate traffic
    • Reduces “burstiness”
x 25 frame relay atm
X.25/ Frame relay/ ATM
  • Shared network services offered by telcos
    • Multiple end users can share the same infrastructure
    • Aggregation similar to interstate system
  • End users connect to shared network using point-to-point links such as T1/ T3
x 25 frame relay atm1
X.25/ Frame relay/ ATM
  • When data packets enter shared network, carrier assigns label based upon destination
  • Shared network uses labels to direct packets to correct destinations
  • Each label is called a virtual channel
    • Data link layer technologies
    • Many virtual channels can be carried over a single physical link, limited only by link capacity
x 25 frame relay atm2
X.25/ Frame relay/ ATM
  • X.25
    • Standardized by CCITT in 1976
    • Data rates: 56 kbps – 2 mbps
  • Frame relay
    • Specified/ standardized in 1990 (Cisco)/ 1992 (CCITT)
    • Data rates: 56 kbps – 45 mbps
  • ATM
    • Standardized: 1992 by CCITT
    • Data rates: 1.544 mbps – 622.080 mbps
    • Pricing: ~ $400/ mbps/port (domestic) – upto $4,000/ mbps/port (internationally)
tdm wans
  • Available line data rate divided into time slots
    • Physical layer technology
  • Each virtual channel given one or more slots
  • Commercially available as SONET services
    • Synchronous Optical NETwork
    • Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) in Europe
    • Offered as optical carrier (OC) services
  • Pricing generally dependent on distance: ~ $15/ mbps/ mile
tdm wans1
  • X.25/ Frame relay/ ATM often transported over SONET links
  • SONET data rates first standardized in 1988 by CCITT
fdm wans
  • Optical fiber has very high bandwidth
    • Capable of supporting extremely large data rates
    • No single user needs such high bandwidths
  • Available line bandwidth split into multiple lower bandwidth channels
    • Like lanes on interstate highways
    • Vehicles are not wide enough to use entire road width
fdm wans1
  • DWDM channel frequencies standardized by ITU-T as ITU grid in 2001
    • 3 bands: L band, C band, S band
    • 50 channels/ band = 150 channels total
    • Data rates up to 10 gbps possible per DWDM channel
  • DWDM commonly used in network core
    • Considered below physical layer
  • Each FDM channel on a DWDM link may transport a SONET signal, which in turn may transport multiple ATM channels
wans and tcp ip stack
WANs and TCP/ IP stack
  • Where are WAN technologies positioned on the TCP/ IP stack?
  • Typically, multiple WANs traversed by packet from source to destination
  • Routers interface between WANs
    • Hence WANs typically considered a data link layer technology
wans and tcp ip stack1
WANs and TCP/ IP stack
  • Traceroute to Google
  • WANs are long distance links that aggregate traffic from multiple networks
  • WANs generally have very high data rates
  • WAN types include point-to-point, statistically multiplexed, TDM and FDM
  • Carriers define virtual circuits for each source-destination pair of nodes
  • WANs operate at the data link layer
case study uavs
Case study – UAVs
  • Remote wars were fought with soldiers
  • Now, increasingly de[end upon satellite based WAN networks
  • UAVs
hands on exercise
Hands-on exercise
    • Download academic version of software
      • Approx. 50 MB
    • Run scenario
    • Collect statistics
network design exercise
Network design exercise
  • Choosing appropriate WAN technologies
  • Adding routers to the network