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Phytohormone Profiling of Wheat Seedlings in Responses to Hessian Fly Infestation. Lieceng Zhu 1 , Xiang Liu 2 , Ming-Shun Chen 3 1 Fayetteville State University 2 North Carolina State University 3 USDA-ARS in Manhattan, Kansas. Wheat - Hessian Fly Interaction A gene for gene model.

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phytohormone profiling of wheat seedlings in responses to hessian fly infestation

Phytohormone Profiling of Wheat Seedlings in Responses to Hessian Fly Infestation

Lieceng Zhu1, Xiang Liu2, Ming-Shun Chen3

1Fayetteville State University

2North Carolina State University

3USDA-ARS in Manhattan, Kansas

slide2

Wheat - Hessian Fly Interaction

A gene for gene model

Virulent

Avirulent

Incompatible

Control

Compatible

slide3

N

C

C

N

C

N

Characteristics of Larval Feeding

  • Physically damage plants
  • Limited to a few cells
  • Induces nutritive tissue formation at feeding sites(Harris et al. 2006)
  • Sessile
  • Feed like pathogen

CK

  • Shift in carbon & nitrogen metabolism (Zhu et al. 2008)
  • Differential genome-wide gene expression (Liu et al. 2007)

S

R

question
Question

How are responses of wheat seedlings to Hessian fly feeding regulated?

phytohormone profiling
Phytohormone Profiling
  • Determine concentration of several types of phytohormone simultaneously

GC-MS Analysis

Gas Chromatography

Mass Spectrometry

Detector

  • Separator
phytohormone profiling1
Phytohormone Profiling
  • 10 phytohormone/related compounds detected
    • IAA, SA, CA, BA, JA, OPDA, 18:3, 18:1, 18:2 & 18:0 FA
  • IAA, SA, JA, OPDA, 18:1, 18:3 were affected at feeding sites
  • No changes in second leaves
  • Implication: Impacts of HF feeding on phytohormones is localized
compatible interaction
Compatible Interaction
  • IAA increased
    • Major form of Auxin
  • Implication: IAA contributes to susceptibility
incompatible interaction
Incompatible Interaction
  • SA & OPDA increased
    • Concentration (ng/ g fresh weight)

11 fold

SA

8 fold

OPDA

35 fold

18 fold

slide11

Membrane lipids

18:3 FA

LOX2

AOS

AOC

OPDA

OPR3

JA

  • 18:3 & 18:1 FA increased
  • JA decreased at 24 H
  • Implication:
    • JA may not regulate resistance
    • OPDA & SA may regulate resistant responses

Response

gene expression in ja pathway

Membrane lipids

24H 48H 72H

18:3 FA

C R S C R S C R S

LOX2

LOX 2

AOS

AOS

AOC

OPDA

At VSP2

OPR3

28S RNA

JA

Gene Expression in JA Pathway
  • LOX2 & AOS: Compatible Incompatible
  • AtVSP2: Compatible Incompatible at 24 & 48H
  • Implication:
    • OPDA was regulated at transcription level
    • AtVSP2 may be induced by OPDA
    • AtVSP2 is important in resistance

AtVSP2

(JA responsive)

summary
Summary
  • Impact of HF larval feeding is localized
  • OPDA & SA may act together in wheat resistance to HF
  • IAA plays a role in susceptibility of wheat plants
  • Increases in OPDA in incompatible interaction is partially regulated through gene transcription
  • AtVSP2 protein may be induced by OPDA & is critical to wheat resistance to HF
acknowledgement
Acknowledgement
  • KSU Lipidomics Center
    • Dr. Richard Jeannotte, Ms. Alex Sparks
  • Grant P20 MD001089 from the National Institutes of Health, NCMHD, the Department of Health & Human Services