SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS. SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS. HYBRID VERSUS HEIRLOOM GMOs WHAT SEEDS DO I START?!? SEED GERMINATION PRETREATING SEEDS STARTING SEEDS INDOOR RAISING HEALTHY SEEDLINGS STARTING SEEDS OUTDOORS SAVING SEEDS TROUBLESHOOTING. Hybrid versus Heirloom. Hybrids
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS • HYBRID VERSUS HEIRLOOM • GMOs • WHAT SEEDS DO I START?!? • SEED GERMINATION • PRETREATING SEEDS • STARTING SEEDS INDOOR • RAISING HEALTHY SEEDLINGS • STARTING SEEDS OUTDOORS • SAVING SEEDS • TROUBLESHOOTING
Hybrid versus Heirloom • Hybrids • Result from controlled cross-pollination • The goal is to produce a plant with the most desirable characteristics from both parent plants • Parents of hybrid seeds MUST breed true to ensure the hybrid cross can be repeated reliably (must be homozygous for desirable traits) • Hybrids are typically more uniform, have higher yields, and show greater resistance to unfavorable conditions compared to heirlooms • It is not recommended to save seed from hybrid varieties as they will likely not produce similar offspring • Hybrids repeatedly selected and grown have the potential to stabilize after many years
Some Fun Hybrids Pluot: a hybrid between a plum and apricot (both members of the Prunusgenus) also includes: apriums, apriplums, or plumcots. Collectively these are called interspecific plums. Plumcot Tangelo: a hybrid between a tangerine and a grapefruit or pomelo (members of the Citrus genus) Tayberry: a hybrid between a blackberry and red raspberry (members of the Rubus genus)
Some Non-Hybrids The Grapple is NOT a hybrid between a grape and an apple. Because these two fruits belong to different plant families (Rosaceae for apples and Vitaceae for grapes), they CANNOT be combined by classical breeding or grafting techniques. The Grapple is simply a Fuji apple that has been soaked in a concentrated solution of natural and artificial Concord grape flavor and water. The TomTato is NOT a hybrid, but rather a grafted plant consisting of a tomato plant on the upper portion (scion) and a potato plant on the lower portion (rootstock). These plants can be grafted because they are in the same family, Solanaceae, or the nightshade family.
Hybrid versus Heirloom • Heirlooms • Open pollinated - pollination by insects, birds, wind, or other natural mechanisms • Some plants cross-pollinate so these plants need to be isolated if trying to save seed • Plants like beans, lettuce, and peas are self-pollinating so these seeds can be more reliably saved without having to isolate • The “pure breeds” • Varieties that have been around for at least 50 years, and have been preserved and kept true in a particular region • Often have superior flavor, color, and/or texture but lack the holding ability, disease resistance, early maturity, etc., that would make them commercially viable. • Recommended for seed saving • Can produce a “mixed bag” harvest; genetic drift occurs over time so remove any plants that deviate too far from the standard
Some Well Known Heirlooms ‘Kentucky Wonder’ Pole Bean ‘Scarlet Nantes’ Carrot ‘Black Beauty’ Eggplant ‘Black Seeded Simpson’ Lettuce ‘California Wonder’ Pepper ‘Brandywine’ Tomato
GMOs (Specifically GM Crops) • Genetically Modified Organisms: plants or animals that have been genetically engineered with DNA from bacteria, viruses or other plants and animals. These combinations of genes from different species cannot occur in nature or in traditional crossbreeding (AKA Frankenfoods) • Many crops have been genetically modified to include genes that enhance traits such as herbicide resistance (Roundup Ready), and/or pest resistance (Bt corn) • Much controversy about environmental repercussions, health implications, legal issues specifically dealing with patent infringement, etc. • GMOs ARE NOT the same as crops that have been modified through classical breeding techniques • Many countries are banning the growing and selling of GM plants and animals • Recent polls suggest that the majority of Americans want GM foods to be labeled • The Non-GMO Project is North America’s only third party verification and labeling for non-GMO food and products.
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS WHAT SEEDS DO I START WITH? READ DIRECTIONS ON BACK!!!! VERY IMPORTANT TO KNOW WHETHER THEY SHOULD BE PLANTED STRAIGHT IN THE GROUND OR IN A PLANTNG TRAY. WHAT IS RECOMMENDED….. NO GMO AND ORGANIC SEEDS!!!!
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS • SEED GERMINATION • MOISTURE AND WARMTH • SEEDS DO NOT NEED NITROGEN TO GERMINATE THEY ARE PACKED WITH THEIR OWN GROWTH HORMONES. • MOST GARDEN SEEDS GERMINAE AT 75-90 DEGREES F. • AIR- DO NOT PACK THE SOIL • EVENLY MOIST SOIL-NOT SOGGY • CONTINUE TO GIVE THE SEEDLINGS MOISTURE, WARMTH, AIR AND LIGHT IT KEEPS GROWING. • MOST SEEDS DO NOT NEED ANY SPECIAL LIGHTING. • CHECK THE SEED PACKET FOR ANY SPECIAL GERMINATION REQUIREMENTS FOR LIGHTING.
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS • PRETREATING SEEDS • PRE-GERMINATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SOME SEEDS. INATE DORMANCY = HELPS ENSURE SURVIVAL IN NATURE WHILE THEY WAIT OUT THE WINTER OR DRY SEASON BEFORE SPROUTING. • STRATIFICATION OR COLD PERIOD. EXAMPLE: FRUIT TREE SEEDS. 90 DAYS OF COLD!!!! • PRESOAKING • CHEMICAL COATS THAT NEED SOAKED AWAY. (SLOW TO SOAK) • JUST HELPS TO GERMINATE FASTER • SCARIFICATION- SEEDS WITH THICK COAT MAKE A NICK IN SEED COAT.
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS • STARTING SEEDS INDOORS • YOUR EQUIPMENT: • SEED STARTING CONTAINER • STARTING MEDIUM OR SOIL MIX • WATERING CAN AND SPRAY BOTTLE • LABELS • MARKING PEN • SEED PACKETS • CALENDAR!!!!!!!! • STEP BY STEP TRAY MAKE-UP • FILL TRAY • SOAK TRAY (WAIT A FEW MINUTES TO DRAIN) • PLANT SEEDS AND MIST • COVER WITH DOME IF NEEDED
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS • RAISING HEALTHY SEEDS • LIGHT • TEMPERATURE • VENTILATION (AS SOON AS SEEDS SPROUT) • FERTILIZER (AFTER TRUE-LEAVES SET) • TRANSPLANTING • PLANTING OUT • HARDENED-OFF • WIND • STRONG SUN • COLD AIR • VARYING TEMPERATURES
SEEDS AND SEEDLING • STARTING SEEDS OUTDOORS • AMMEND SOIL FIRST (IF NEEDED) • READ DIRECTIONS ON PACKAGE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • LAST FROST DATE • LOOK AT YOUR LOCAL ACCREDITED SOURCES!!! OSU RECCOMENDED FOR DATES ON PLANTING!
SEED SEEDLINGS • SAVING SEEDS • PLACE YOUR SAVED SEEDS IN A SEALED CONTAINER IN A DARK, DRY, AND COOL LOCATION. (EXAMPLE: MASON JAR IN KITCHEN CABINET) • WHAT YOU DO NOT USE NOW, YOU CAN USE IN FALL OR NEXT SPRING!
SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS • TROUBLESHOOTING • IF YOUR SEEDS FAIL TO GERMINATE OR IF ONLY A FEW SPROUT, IT IS PROBABLY DUE TO ONE OR MORE OF THESE FACTORS: • OLD SEED THAT IS NO LONGER VIABLE. • SEEDS PRODUCED UNDER POOR GROWING CONDITIONS AND IS NOT VIABLE. • SEED THAT IS DAMAGED. • TO MUCH OR NOT ENOUGH MOISTURE. • TEMPERATURE TO HIGH OR TO LOW. • GERMINATION-INHIBITED SUBSTANCE IN THE SOIL (HERBICIDE RESIDUES, FOR EXAMPLE) OR HIGH SALT CONTENT. • TOP WATERING OR HEAVY RAIN WASHED SEEDS OUT OF SOIL MIX OR COVERED OR COVERED THEM TO DEEPLY TO START WITH. • DAMPING-OFF DISEASE • SEEDS NOT IN GOOD CONTACT WITH SOIL. • LACK OF LIGHT OR LACK OF DARKNESS FOR SEEDS THAT NEED THESE FOR GERMINATION. • DORMANCY REQUIREMENT NOT MET……
Upcoming Classes • February • 8th – Pruning and Prepping for Spring (1:00pm) • 15th – Composting and Vermicomposting (1:00pm) • 22nd – Native Plants and Kids Class Making Pinecone Feeders (1:00pm) • March • 1st – Cool Season Crops and Creative Design (1:00pm) • 8th – Backyard Chickens (1:00pm) • 15th – Bee-nificials! (1:00pm) • 22nd – Everything About Edibles • 29th – Kids Class! Insects, composting, recycling, etc. Get the full list at www.groggsgreenbarn.com