The Govenmental Response to Hurricane Katrina. PADM 523 & 524—Summer 2011 P rofessor Mario Rivera. Layered and sequenced Response Strategy. Capabilities and Resources. Federal Response. State Response. Regional / Mutual Response Systems. Local Response, Municipal and County.
PADM 523 & 524—Summer 2011
Professor Mario Rivera
Capabilities and Resources
Regional / Mutual Response Systems
Local Response, Municipal and County
Minimal Low Medium High Catastrophic
Increasing magnitude and severity
The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (1988) calls for disaster and emergency declarations for events that overwhelm state and local capability. These trigger statutory authority and access on the part of FEMA to a Disaster Relief Fund to provide federal direct aid and financial assistance to render emergency services. Along with the legislation that created the agency, this Act authorizes FEMA to coordinate the administration of all disaster relief.
A Governor must execute the given State’s emergency plan and indicate in writing that the situation is of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the State and affected local governments and supplemental Federal assistance is necessary.
Kettl, Donald F. (2007). System Under Stress: Homeland Security and American Politics. 2nd Ed. Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.
Consolidation of agencies and duties in a new Department of Homeland Security was considered a requirement for effective homeland defense.
Integration of threat analysis, information-sharing, and intelligence across Federal agencies and down to state and municipal governments was required, as well as a general increase in scope of Federal law enforcement role. However, the FBI, CIA, and Defense intelligence agencies kept themselves out of DHS and resist any exercise of its jurisdiction.
Subordinating the FEMA disaster-response mission and role to that of terror-response seriously weakened agency capabilities. Moreover, there was then an exodus of its top-flight officials.Creation of the DHS post-September 11, 2001
What processes and practices will improve cooperation, communication, coordination, consensus-seeking behavior, relationship-building, capacity-building, information sharing, integration, network management, joint operations, inter-operability, trust, and flexible adaptive approaches to disasters like Katrina? What will advance collaboration among federal, state, and local emergency management and other agencies, and nonprofit and for-profit actors?
We need networks of horizontal relationships. We [also] need strong vertical lines in our organizations. Hierarchy provides the critical, unifying structure to the capacity of complex organizations. But we need horizontal relationships to put that capacity to work. We need to organize vertically and to work horizontally.
A concept that describes the process of facilitating, and operating in, multi-organizational arrangements to solve problems that cannot be solved or easily solved by single organizations. It means to co-production, cooperation to achieve common goals, and work across boundaries in multisector relationships. Cooperation is based on the values of reciprocity, trust, and mutual respect. In these contexts, clarity of roles and responsibilities is essential, since these tend to blur in networked arrangements.
Definition: formal and functional relationships between or among levels and agencies of government
Problems common to IGRs and networks in general: