(Final)End of Year Project: 05/22/14 • Create a game about World Geography. • Game will be played by classmates. • Teams will be comprised of 4 members or less. • Teams will have to create a playable game and promotional poster by due date.
Eight Strands of Social Studies • History • Geography • Economics • Government • Citizenship • Culture • Science, Technology, and Society • Social Studies Skills
Social Studies Strand - History • People, events, and issues from the past that • affect people presently • will continue to affect people in the future • Explains how individuals and societies interact over time
Social Studies Strand - Geography • Relationships among people, places, and environment that result in patterns on the Earth’s surface • Meant to help people • Compete in a global economy • Make sure the environment stays healthy • Understand different cultures and how they live together in the same planet
Social Studies Strand - Economics • Meant to organize systems based on what is produced, what is distributed, and what is consumed
Social Studies Strand - Government • Structures of power and authority • Power is meant to provide order and stability
Social Studies Strand - Citizenship • Requires that people understand their • Responsibilities as citizens • Rights as citizens • Ethical behavior • People fully participate when they understand • Civic ideals • Citizenship practices • Basis for constitutional republics
Social Studies Strand - Culture • How people develop, learn, and adapt cultures • Meant to help people understand variety of human cultures in the community and around the world
Social Studies Strand – Science, Technology, and Society • How people live, learn, and work - past, present, and future – based on their relationship with science, technology, and the environment
Social Studies Strand – Social Studies Skills • Used to acquire, organize, and use information for problem-solving and decision-making. • Meant to help people become better problem-solvers, decision-makers, and independent lifelong learners
Exploring Geography • You should now understand what is meant by the following terms: • History • Geography • Economics • Government • Citizenship • Culture • Science, Technology, and Society • Social Studies Skills
Space • The Earth is the third planet from the sun and is a terrestrial planet. • Two types of planets: • Terrestrial planets (made up of rocky crusts) • Giant gaseous planets (more gaseous and less dense)
Spheres • Hydrosphere- All of earth’s water. • Lithosphere- The earth’s crust. • Atmosphere- The earth’s air. • Biosphere- The part of the earth that supports life.
Landforms • The four major landforms are mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains. • The seven most visible landforms are the continents: Africa, Asia, Antarctica, Australia, Europe, North America, South America.
Water • About 70% of Earth’s surface is water. • 97% is saltwater and 3% is freshwater. Many parts of the world are already suffering from water shortages.
Climate and Weather • Weather is what is occurring in one place during a short period of time. • Climate describes long term weather patterns.
What Effects Climate? • Latitude • The Atmosphere • Elevation • Ocean/Wind Currents ?
Latitude- Middle of Earth gets the most rays. • The areas between The Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn receive the sun’s direct rays and are thus warmer. The farther you get from the middle, the colder it gets.
The Atmosphere and Climate • The atmosphere keeps heat from escaping too quickly into space. • This is key to life on earth.
Pollution and the Greenhouse Effect • Pollution traps more of the Sun’s rays. Increasing the temperature.
Altitude/Elevation and Climate • As you increase the elevation. The air thins out. • This leads to two things: less air, colder temperatures.
Wind • The Coriolis Effect causes prevailing winds to blow diagonally. • These winds are the major trade winds of the world. • They used to move ships. They still move climate and precipitation.
Ocean • Ocean currents moderate the temperature. Making places less cold and less hot. • Vacation time!
Dynamism Inside Earth • There is extreme heat and pressure inside of the Earth. In fact, temperatures there reach 8,500 *F. • Magma is in the Mantle. • The Crust is a thin layer of rock that is about 2 miles thick. The crust is broken into plates that float on the upper mantle.
Plate Movement • 500 million years ago, our continents were together in one supercontinent called Pangaea. • The plates have since moved apart.
Internal Forces of Change • The same forces that move the continents, also create mountains, islands, volcanoes and earthquakes.
Erosion • Erosion is the wearing away of the Earth’s surface by wind, glaciers, and moving water. • A terrible example would be the Dust Bowl that devastated America during the 1930’s.
Culture • The way of life of a group of people • Share similar beliefs and customs • Group of people with common characteristics
Elements of Culture • History • Language • Religion • Entertainment/Recreation • Cultural Expression • Social Classes • Social Groups • Economic Activities • Government • Culture Regions
Culture • We are very familiar with culture because we see it everyday
Cultural Change • Does culture stay the same? • Internal and external factors are always changing cultures • Internal: new ideas, lifestyles, & inventions • External: trade, migration, war • Cultural Diffusion • The spread of ideas from one culture to another
Cultural Diffusion I. Agricultural Revolution – We used to be nomads (people that move from place to place) • The invention of farming allowed people to settle in one place creating CIVILIZATIONS
Cultural Diffusion • Cultural Hearths – centers of civilizations whose ideas and practices spread to surrounding areas • Most influential – • Egypt • Iraq • Pakistan • China • Mexico
Cultural Diffusion • Trade – the development of civilizations allowed for the creation of technology • The invention of new technology gave way to long distance trade and the spread of ideas
Cultural Diffusion • Permanent Migration – the movement of people gives way to the movement of ideas • Migrants carry their cultures with them, and their ideas and practices often blend with those of the people already living in the migrant’s adopted country
Cultural Diffusion • Industrial & Informational Revolution • Industrial – the transformation of economies led to social changes • Informational – globalization!
Exploring Geography • Culture • Cultural Diffusion • Culture Hearths • Culture Region
Population Growth • Demographics • Tell you specific statistical information about population • Example: El Paso is 72% Latino • Example: University of Texas at El Paso is 55% Female
Growth Rates • Death rate – the # of deaths per year for every 1000 people • Birth rate – the # of births per year for every 1000 people • Growth rate = Birthrate – Death Rate • How much the population is growing by, total • Can be positive, more people being born than dying • Negative Population Growth • When more people dying than being born • Death rate is greater than birth rate • Zero Population Growth • When birth rate and death rate are equal