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Enzymes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Enzymes. What are Enzymes?. Globular proteins Biological catalysts Do not change after reaction They are found in small quantities Specific Reactions are reversible. How Enzymes Work. Enzymes lower the energy required for a chemical reaction to occur (activation energy). How Enzymes Work.

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Presentation Transcript
what are enzymes
What are Enzymes?
  • Globular proteins
  • Biological catalysts
  • Do not change after reaction
  • They are found in small quantities
  • Specific
  • Reactions are reversible
how enzymes work
How Enzymes Work
  • Enzymes lower the energy required for a chemical reaction to occur (activation energy)
enzyme structure
Enzyme Structure
  • Tertiary Structure of enzyme determines its unique shape.
  • Forms its ACTIVE SITE

Active Site

enzyme action
Enzyme Action
  • Enzymes work on specific substrates
  • Substrate(s) has to fit in the active site
  • Lock and key hypothesis

Products

Substrate

Active site

Enzyme /Substrate Complex

Enzyme unchanged

Enzyme

enzyme action1
Enzyme Action
  • Active site is sometimes flexible
  • When substrate(s) enter active site enzyme changes shape
  • Induced Fit Theory

Product

Substrates

Active site

Enzyme /Substrate Complex

Enzyme unchanged

Enzyme

enzyme action2
Enzyme Action
  • Rate of an enzyme reaction can be affected by:
    • Temperature
    • pH
    • Enzyme Concentration
    • Substrate Concentration
monitoring enzyme action
Monitoring Enzyme Action
  • In an experiment enzyme action can be timed by:
  • Formation of Products e.g. gas
  • Disappearance of Substrate e.g. starch
what to do now
What to do now
  • Read Key Biological Principle box page 77-79
  • Answer Checkpoints 2.3 and 2.4