Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management of Capture Fisheries. Kevern Cochrane and Gabriella Bianchi Fishery Resources Division FAO. A range of views on EFBM (2) (from Lackey, 1999).
The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Managementof Capture Fisheries Kevern Cochrane and Gabriella Bianchi Fishery Resources Division FAO
A range of views on EFBM (2)(from Lackey, 1999) “The move to ecosystem management concepts is an evolutionary process that has been underway for decades and is becoming more and more feasible with developments in science, technology and philosophy.” (Thomas, 1996) “Ecosystem management defines a paradigm that weaves biophysical and social threads into a tapestry of beauty, health, and sustainability. It embraces both social and ecological dynamics in a flexible and adaptive process. Ecosystem management celebrates the wisdom of both our minds and hearts, and lights our path to the future” (Cornett, 1994) Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
A range of views on EFBM(from Lackey, 1999) “I promise you that I can justify anything you want to do by saying it is ecosystem management. Not that I don’t think it is a good idea. I applaud it. But right now its incredibly nebulous.” (Thomas, 1993) Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
Why the need for EAF? An ecosystem approach to fisheries is a response to the identified shortcomings in traditional fisheries management, which has been based on a single-species perspective and model. Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
The underlying rationale of single-species approaches: the Schaefer Model Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
The ecological reality: Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
…that leads to a web of interactions Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
Implications of Ecosystem Interactions for Traditional Fisheries Management • Changes in the habitat will affect the average sustainable yield. • Different fisheries are linked through catches and through the food web. • All human goals for an ecosystem cannot be simultaneously achieved. • Even traditionally ‘well-managed’ fisheries can impact biodiversity. • Uncertainty is a primary factor influencing our ability to management capture fisheries • As a result while traditional methods may work in the short-term, they are likely to result in long-term changes in nature and productivity. Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
Definition of EAF An Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries strives to balance diverse societal objectives, by taking account of the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries. Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
The 12 principles of an ecosystem approach (CBD, Decision V/6) 1: The objectives of management of natural resources are a matter of societal choice. 2: Management should be decentralized to the lowest appropriate level. 3: Must consider the effects of activities on other ecosystems. 4: … need to manage the ecosystem in an economic context. Actions include: (a) reduce market distortions that adversely affect biological diversity; (b) align incentives to promote biodiversity conservation and sustainable use; (c) internalize costs and benefits in the ecosystem... 5: Conserve ecosystem structure and functioning, in order to maintain ecosystem services. Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
Principles 6-12 • manage ecosystems within the limits of their functioning;. • appropriate spatial and temporal scales. • objectives should be set for the long term. • recognize that change is inevitable. • seek the appropriate balance between conservation and use of biological diversity. • consider all forms of relevant information • involve all relevant sectors of society and scientific disciplines. Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
EAF In Practice Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
Making EAF Operational Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
Hierarchical Tree Framework8 major components of ESD Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
The goal of EAF: feasible, reconciled objectives for all stakeholders PROTECTION BIO- DIVERSITY TUNA FISHERY SUBSISTENCE FISHERY DEMERSAL TRAWL FISHERY RECREAT- IONAL FISHERY SEA BIRD CONSER- VATION ECO- TOURISM SECTOR SMALL PELAGIC FISHERY PROTECTION CRITICAL HABITATS Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
Threats to Implementing EAF • Mismatch between expectations and resources. • Reconciling much expanded set of conflicting objectives. • Insufficient or inadequate participation by stakeholders. • Insufficient knowledge. • Equity issues. • Etc. Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt
Examples of EAF in Practice • Progress towards ecologically sustainable development of fisheries in Australia. • NOAA has developed a prototype Fisheries Ecosystem Plan for the Chesapeake Bay – currently under peer-review of the draft plan. • Angola, Namibia and South Africa. FAO/BCLME project: “Ecosystem Approaches for Fisheries (EAF) Management in the BCLME" Sumber: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/theme1_1.ppt