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HIGH SPEED RAIL CORRIDOR. DELHI-AGRA-LUCKNOW-VARANASI-PATNA. International Seminar on "High Speed Trains in India - Issues & Options“ 1st & 2nd February 2013 New Delhi. General. Vision 2020 identified 6 HSR corridors for pre-feasibility study (PFS)

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High speed rail corridor



International Seminaron"High Speed Trains in India - Issues & Options“1st & 2nd February 2013New Delhi.


  • Vision 2020 identified 6 HSR corridors for pre-feasibility study (PFS)

  • Delhi-Agra-Lucknow-Varanasi-Patna is the longest Corridor

  • 1000+ km long corridor passes through densely populated, Northern India’s fertile Gangetic Planes

  • Connects Delhi with all major cities of UP and Bihar’s capital Patna;

  • These cities are also important historical and religious tourist destinations

  • Kanpur, Allahabad and Mathura are other major cities on the corridor


  • Mott Macdonald selected for PFS; Submitted report in 2011

  • JICA submitted a report on HSR between Delhi-Agra-Kanpur in 1987; Speed in the range of 250 kmph

  • Project dropped in 2001 perhaps because of high cost and financial unviability

Existing transport infrastructure
Existing Transport Infrastructure

  • The corridor generally lies on the densely saturated Delhi-Kolkata IR trunk route

  • A separate Eastern DFC is being constructed which is expected to free additional capacities for running of passenger trains in the existing IR route

  • All these cities are also well connected by road (NH-2 and other Highways) as well as airports

  • Yamuna Expressway ( 6 lane road) between Delhi – Agra opened in 2012

High speed rail corridor

Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway

  • Access Controlled, 6-lane, upgradable to 8 lane

High speed rail corridor

Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway

  • 165 KM ; Total Cost Rs 13300 Crores ( @ Rs 80

  • Cr/KM)

  • 100 mts wide right of way

High speed rail corridor

Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway

  • A Greenfield airport proposed along the expressway

High speed rail corridor

Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway

  • Liberal property development rights to promoter Jaypee group

  • A number of residential and commercial real estate projects

  • coming up

Conditions for suitability of hsr corridor
Conditions for suitability of HSR Corridor

  • Existence of populous cities in the mid distance range of 200-800 km, having high and concentrated demand for travel

  • High disposable income and paying capacity of the travelling public

  • Existing transport infrastructure are saturated

  • High GDP growth rate

    Other Factors

  • Non availability of cheap, local source of oil in plenty

  • Airports are located far from city centres

  • Increasing environmental and sustainability concerns

Suitability of hsr in indian context1
Suitability of HSR in Indian Context

  • High population density

  • Relatively young age profile

    • Population growth expected to continue

    • Maximum population in working age group (Low Dependency Ratio)

  • A number of urban conglomerates within suitable distance range of 200-800 Km

  • Land becoming a scarce commodity; increasing difficulty in land acquisition

  • Increasing oil import bills to meet the growing demands from roads/airways; This is affecting India’s trade deficit and exchange rate stability.

High speed rail corridor

Delhi-Lucknow-Patna HSR Corridor :

Favourable factor

  • Connects major cities of UP and Bihar with Delhi; Heavy travel demand in the corridor

  • The cities on the corridor are important historical and religious tourist places

  • Very high population density within the cities as well as catchment area

  • Population growth rate is higher than India average

High speed rail corridor

Delhi-Lucknow-Patna HSR Corridor :

Favourable factor

  • Except for Varanasi all other cities are growing at very fast rate

  • Existing IR corridor, NH-2 and Delhi airport is saturated

  • The region is fertile plain land and people are generally well off

  • Plain land – so civil cost of HSR will be less

  • Land is a scarce commodity; resistance to land acquisition

High speed rail corridor

Delhi-Lucknow-Patna HSR Corridor : Unfavourable factor

  • Many stretch along corridor are low lying and flood prone – elevated corridor required

  • Except Delhi, IT and other high end service and manufacturing industries not well developed

  • River crossings at many locations (major rivers Ganga, Yamuna, Sone)

  • Eastern DFC

Options for hsr in the delhi agra lucknow varanasi patna corridor
Options for HSR in the Delhi-Agra-Lucknow-Varanasi-Patna Corridor

  • Two options

    1) Upgrade the existing rail corridor upto speed of 160-200 kmph, after segregation of DFC

    2) To lay dedicated HSR corridor speed 300-350 KMPH

  • Study shows that though upgrading the existing rail corridor will meet the short/medium term requirement of 5-10 years, considering overall economical rate of return, a dedicated HSR in the corridor is desirable in long term

  • Both conventional and HSR corridor will be required to serve to different segment of customers

  • Existing Railway stations are saturated and congested

High speed rail corridor

Forcast HSR daily paasenger demand in 2045(Trips per day)

High speed rail corridor

Route Alignment

Delhi to Agra

Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor to Mathura and Agra.

Option 2 - Initially follows the existing rail corridor to Faridabad

before using a direct (straight line) route to Agra.

Option 3 - Follows the newly constructed Yamuna Express Way

from Greater Noida to Agra

Option 4– Starting at Indira Ghandi Airport, follows a corridor to the

west of Dehli

Option 5– Follows the existing rail corridor via Aligarh.

High speed rail corridor

Route Alignment

Agra to Lucknow

Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor via Kanpur

to Lucknow and connects to an intermediate station at Kanpur

Option 2 – Follows a direct (straight line) route between

Agra and Lucknow (avoiding Kanpur)

Option 3 – Follows a direct route to Kanpur and continues on a direct route from Kanpur to Lucknow.

High speed rail corridor

Route Alignment

Lucknow to Varanasi

Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor via Sultanpur

Option 2 – Follows a direct (straight line) route

between Lucknow and Varanasi

Option 3 – Follows a direct route to Allahabad and also

a direct route between Allahabad to Varanasi.

High speed rail corridor

Route Alignment

Varanasi to Patna

Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor via Arrah

Option 2 – Follows a direct route between Varanasi and Patna

but uses the existing rail corridor east of Varanasi

and also uses the existing rail corridor for the

approach to Patna.

High speed rail corridor

Corridor Map: Distance and Time

  • 500 Km

  • 2 Hrs

  • 7 Hrs


  • 1000 Km

  • 4 hrs

  • 12 Hrs




  • 190 Km

  • 50 minutes

  • 2 Hrs




  • 780 Km

  • 3 hrs

  • 10 Hrs

HSR time Ex Delhi

Fastest conventional Rail Time

High speed rail corridor

Features of proposed HSR

  • No interoperability with existing IR network

  • Standard Gauge

  • HSR station of Delhi – At PragatiMaidan or close to Nizamuddin

  • Station at other locations at city outskirts

Features of proposed hsr
Features of proposed HSR

  • Indian market is very price sensitive; so it will become essential to keep the fares of HSR about 10-15% less than airfare

  • HSR fare would have to kept in the range of Rs 4-5 per KM

  • Train frequency – every 10 minutes

  • Station dwell time 5 minutes at intermediate stations

  • 10-30 minutes at terminating stations

High speed rail corridor


Civil Structure and Track

  • On 6 m high embankment wherever possible, at low lying and congested areas on elevated viaduct

  • Standard GuageBallastless or Slab track track

  • Track seperation 5.3 mts

  • UIC 60 (CEN 60) rail

  • swing nose crossings turnouts that can be operated at 230km/h on the diverted track.

  • Horizontal Curves Radius > 6000 mts


Rolling Stock

  • Max operating speed 300 kmph (Design Speed – 350)

  • 8/16 car distributed trainset, (energy efficient, reduced energy and weight/passenger, light axle load 12-16 T, HOG, regenerative braking

  • Train length 200/400 mts

  • Passenger Capacity – 650/1300 persons

  • Power requirement – 8.5/17 MW per train

    ( 20-23 kW per Tonne or about 13-15 kW per seat)

  • Acceleration from 0-300 Kmph – 4-5 minutes, 14-16 KM

  • Braking from 300 – 0 Kmph - 3 Minutes, 7-8 KM

  • Articulated/Non articulated bogie


Power Supply

  • 2 x 25kV 50hz AC auto transformer feed

  • TSS - Every 50km (approx), Fed from HV supplies at 220kV, 2 x 80MVA transformers at each supply point.

  • Autotransformer system (25-0-25kV), Autotransformers located every 10km (approx)

  • SCADA system provided for control

High speed rail corridor


  • Signalling and communications

    • CBTC, In cab signalling, ETCS 2 or ETCS 3

    • (Moving block, high capacity; 3 to 5 min headways)

    • Automatic train control / protection

    • Train detection (Axle counters)

  • Communication – GSM-R

  • TETRA (Voice Communication)

  • Fibre Optic Transmission Network

High speed rail corridor


  • Year 2020 –

  • Nineteen 8 car units out of which 15 in operation

  • Train frequency every 10 minutes

  • Year 2045 –

  • Forty Eight 16 car units out of which forty four in service

  • Train frequency every 5 minutes

  • Depot Location at Lucknow

High speed rail corridor

  • The terminal station in Delhi will be at PragatiMaidan. A 6-platform station is recommended with additional passive provision to extend this to 8 platforms when passenger demand justifies it. The station platforms are elevated at approximately 8m above ground level and arranged as 2 island platforms and 2 side platforms.

  • Agra station will be at grade and located on the left of the NH-2 (Agra - Kanpur), on the right side of the Yamuna Expressway at the intersection of the YEW and NH2. A 2-platform arrangement is provided at Agra that incorporates a turn back siding.

  • Lucknow station will be at grade and located in proximity to Lucknow Airport along the east part of the National Highway 25 (Lucknow - Kanpur). A 4-platform arrangement is provided which also incorporates a turn back facility.

High speed rail corridor

  • Allahabad station will be at grade and located adjacent to the existing Phaphamau railway station just east of the NH93. A 2- platform station is recommended at Phapaphamu.

  • Varanasi station will be at grade and located in the southern outskirts of the city in proximity to Delhi Public School along State Highway98 near its intersection with SH 74. A 2-platform station arrangement is recommended at Varanasi, incorporating a turn back siding.

  • Patna station will be at grade and located at the site of the Airport (which will be vacated) in close proximity of Phulwari Sharif railway station. A 4 platform terminal station is recommended.

High speed rail corridor


  • Cost – Rs 100 to 110 Crs per Route KM with land acquisition

  • - Rs 80-85 Crs per route Km without land acquisition

  • Unit Cost

  • Embankment – Rs 10 Cr/Km

  • Elevated Viaduct - Rs 50/KM

  • Bridge - Rs 500/Km

  • Tunnel - Rs 600/Km

  • Trainset ( 8 car) – Rs 220 Cr

  • O&M Cost Rs 0.5 per passenger KM (other than rolling stock)

  • Economic Rate of Return – 18-21%

  • Financial Rate of Return - 10-12%

High speed rail corridor


  • Upgrading of existing IR Delhi-Kolkata line may work for short/medium term of 10 yrs

  • In long term dedicated HSR is essential for the corridor

  • The HSR should be on standard gauge

  • Mobilizing huge initial capital investment will be a big challenge. PPP route is suggested. Still Govt will have to provide for VGF and counter guarantee for Loan

  • To attract private players PPP framework should allocate risk judiciously.

High speed rail corridor


  • Adequate provision for non farebox revenue by way of property development and rentals to keep the ticket price competitive

  • HSR should come up as part of overall development package including land-use, integrated transport. State government would have to play active part.

  • Associated benefits of HSR along with increased tax revenue to Govt would pay off for the initial capital investment.

High speed rail corridor

TGV, France

ICE, Germany

High speed rail corridor

Overseas HSR

  • Spain has several HSR routes open or under construction totalling over 1000 km

  • Japan opened the world’s first HSR in 1964, the Tokyo to Osaka Shinkansen, which has since been expanded (now over 2400 km)

Alaris, Spain


High speed rail corridor


  • Track, Civils and Power

    • Continuously welded rail

    • Resilient trackform (quieter)

    • Viaducts, tunnels common

    • Substantially straight

    • Fairly large gradients

    • Dedicated – no mixed train types, little or no freight

    • 50kV autotransformer OLE

    • Nuclear powered….in France.

High speed rail corridor

  • World Bank Study: High-Speed Rail: The FastTrack to EconomicDevelopment?,Paul Amos, Dick Bullock, and JitendraSondhi, July 2010

  • Most linesat least recovertheir operating and maintenance costs

  • Difficult to recover capital costsfrompassenger revenues alone, but there are strongsocio-economiceffects: