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MLA Form and Citation update 2009. Notes on MLA. Now in its seventh edition. Used for research papers written by students (high school and university), and for publication.

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notes on mla
Notes on MLA

Now in its seventh edition.

Used for research papers written by students (high school and university), and for publication.

Typically used for research purposes in subjects such as literature, art, history, politics, media including movies, music , television, and radio.

paper format
Paper Format

Place header in upper right hand corner.

Use italics for long works.

Use only one space after all punctuation marks.

Set one inch margins.

Double-space the text.

Use 12pt font.

Insert endnotes at the end of the paper on a separate page BEFORE the works cited page.

first page of paper
First Page of Paper

Do not include a title page, unless preferred by instructor.

On the upper left corner of the first page, list your name, instructor's name, the course, and the date.

Place the title, double-spaced, under the header. Do not italicize, underline or use quotation marks in any part of the title unless referring to specific works in the title.

Double space between the title and material of the paper.

Place page headers in the upper right margin (approximately 0.5” from the top). Include your last name and page number. (Your instructor may ask you to omit the header on the first page.)

in text citations
In-text Citations
  • With known author: (Jones 232)
  • With unknown author, usually of an article: (“Scholarly Reading” 21)
  • Classic Works in Multiple Editions:

Give the page number of your edition , followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:

Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch. 1).

  • Works found in multiple volumes: (71; bk. 4, ch. 2)
  • Authors with Same Last Names: (A. Miller 54)
more in text citations
More In-text Citations

Multiple Authors ( 3 or fewer):

( Folds, Collins, and Fritz 76)

Multiple Authors (More than 3):

(Chang, et al. 2)


Short text (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse): enclose in double quotes).

Long block of text (more than four lines of text or three lines of poetry), begin a new line. No quotation marks, indent one inch from the left margin, double-spaced

When adding or taking out text, place material in brackets [ ].

works cited page distinct changes for the 7 th edition
Works Cited Page: Distinct Changes for the 7th edition

Titles are now italicized

URL’s are not required but may be used for clarification. When used, place the URL directly after the date of access.

No more continuous pagination needed for scholarly journals. Instead, cite the volume with the issue : 14.2

Performances, DVDs, and Television now can be cited as sources.

New abbreviations: n.p. (no publisher); n.pag. (no pagination).

book with one author
Book with One Author

Stoker, Bram. Dracula. New York: Signet

Classic, 1992. Print.

The title is now italicized.

“Print” is now added to the end.

scholarly journal
Scholarly Journal

Beardsley, Timothy M. “Malawi as

Microcosm.” BioOne59.7 (2009): 539.


“Print” is now added to the end.

scholarly article from an online database
Scholarly Article From an Online Database

Lang, A. “The Folklore of France.” The Folklore

Record 1 (1878): 99-117. JSTOR. Web. 30 July


Database is in italics.

Library information is no longer required.

Medium of publication (web) added.

Date of access added.

strictly online publication
Strictly Online Publication

Goodknight, Glen. “Black & White Ogre

Country: the Lost Tales of Hilary Tolkien.”

Mythlore 1 (2009): n. pag. Web. 30 July


Include medium and date of access.

scholarly online project
Scholarly Online Project

Kline, Damiel T., ed. Geoffrey Chaucer Online:

The Electronic Canterbury Tales. U of Alaska

Anchorage, 8 Dec. 2008. Web. 30 July 2009.

Add medium and access date.

online periodical
Online Periodical

Lewis, Neil A. “Senate Panel Endorses

Sotomayor.” New York Times. New York

Times, 28 July 2009. Web. 30 July 2009.

image painting photograph or sculpture
Image: Painting, Photograph, or Sculpture

Picasso, Pablo. Self-Portrait. 1907. Narodni

Gallery , Prague. 2 Aug. 2009.

citing e mails
Citing E-mails

To you:

Clark, Anna. “Re: The Renaissance.” E-mail to the author. 2 Aug. 2009.

E-mail Communication Between Two Parties, Author Not Included:

Myers, David. "Re: Tutoring." E-mail to Jolie

Gonzales. 1 Dec. 2008.

web blogs
Web Blogs

Last Name, First. "Title of Entry." Weblog Entry.

Title of Weblog. Date Posted. Date Accessed


Queue, Susie. “My First Chat Session.” Weblog Entry. Susie’s UHCL Blog. 23 September, 2009. 30 September, 2009. (

citing weblog comments
Citing Weblog Comments

Screen Name. "Comment Title." Weblog

comment. Date Comment Posted. "Title of

Blog Entry." Author of Blog Entry. Title of

Weblog. Date Accessed (URL).

Buxton, Camille. “Graphic Novels: Indian by Choice.” Weblog Entry. Graphic Novels. 27 September 2009. 29 September 2009 (

article in a database on cd rom
Article in a Database on CD-ROM:

A Personal Interview

Queue, Susie. Personal interview. 10 July 2009.

"World War I." Encarta. CD-ROM. Seattle:

Microsoft, 2002.

a lecture or speech
A Lecture or Speech

Broadcast Television or Radio Program

"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox. WXIA,

Atlanta. 19 Jul. 1998.

Hart, Lillian. “Computers in the Classroom.” University of Houston, Houston, TX 25 July 2006. Keynote Address.

recorded television shows
Recorded Television Shows

"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends:

The Complete Sixth Season. Writ. Andrew

Reich and Ted Cohen. Dir. Kevin Bright. NBC.

10 Feb. 2000. Warner Brothers, 2004. DVD.

individual songs
Individual Songs

A Music Album

Foo Fighters. In Your Honor. RCA, 2005. CD.

Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind.

Geffen, 1991. MP3.

movies in theaters
Movies in Theaters

Recorded Movies

Ed Wood. Dir. Tim Burton. Perf. Johnny Depp,

Martin Landau, Sarah Jessica Parker, and Patricia Arquette. 1994. Touchstone, 2004. DVD.

The Usual Suspects. Dir. Bryan Singer. Perf.

Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz

Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benecio del Toro. Polygram, 1995. Film.


For the following, use the original URL form when citing in the Works Cited page:

An entire website

A page on a website

Images from web sites original to that site

special thanks
Special Thanks

Special thanks to the Purdue OWL for providing guides and examples that were used for this presentation.

works cited
Works Cited

Purdue OWL. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 10 May 2008. Web. 30 July 2009.

Modern Language Association. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: MLA Assoc., 2009. Print.