MLA Form and Citation update 2009. Notes on MLA. Now in its seventh edition. Used for research papers written by students (high school and university), and for publication.
Now in its seventh edition.
Used for research papers written by students (high school and university), and for publication.
Typically used for research purposes in subjects such as literature, art, history, politics, media including movies, music , television, and radio.
Place header in upper right hand corner.
Use italics for long works.
Use only one space after all punctuation marks.
Set one inch margins.
Double-space the text.
Use 12pt font.
Insert endnotes at the end of the paper on a separate page BEFORE the works cited page.
Do not include a title page, unless preferred by instructor.
On the upper left corner of the first page, list your name, instructor's name, the course, and the date.
Place the title, double-spaced, under the header. Do not italicize, underline or use quotation marks in any part of the title unless referring to specific works in the title.
Double space between the title and material of the paper.
Place page headers in the upper right margin (approximately 0.5” from the top). Include your last name and page number. (Your instructor may ask you to omit the header on the first page.)
Give the page number of your edition , followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:
Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch. 1).
Multiple Authors ( 3 or fewer):
( Folds, Collins, and Fritz 76)
Multiple Authors (More than 3):
(Chang, et al. 2)
Short text (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse): enclose in double quotes).
Long block of text (more than four lines of text or three lines of poetry), begin a new line. No quotation marks, indent one inch from the left margin, double-spaced
When adding or taking out text, place material in brackets [ ].
Titles are now italicized
URL’s are not required but may be used for clarification. When used, place the URL directly after the date of access.
No more continuous pagination needed for scholarly journals. Instead, cite the volume with the issue : 14.2
Performances, DVDs, and Television now can be cited as sources.
New abbreviations: n.p. (no publisher); n.pag. (no pagination).
Stoker, Bram. Dracula. New York: Signet
Classic, 1992. Print.
The title is now italicized.
“Print” is now added to the end.
Beardsley, Timothy M. “Malawi as
Microcosm.” BioOne59.7 (2009): 539.
“Print” is now added to the end.
Lang, A. “The Folklore of France.” The Folklore
Record 1 (1878): 99-117. JSTOR. Web. 30 July
Database is in italics.
Library information is no longer required.
Medium of publication (web) added.
Date of access added.
Goodknight, Glen. “Black & White Ogre
Country: the Lost Tales of Hilary Tolkien.”
Mythlore 1 (2009): n. pag. Web. 30 July
Include medium and date of access.
Kline, Damiel T., ed. Geoffrey Chaucer Online:
The Electronic Canterbury Tales. U of Alaska
Anchorage, 8 Dec. 2008. Web. 30 July 2009.
Add medium and access date.
Lewis, Neil A. “Senate Panel Endorses
Sotomayor.” New York Times. New York
Times, 28 July 2009. Web. 30 July 2009.
Picasso, Pablo. Self-Portrait. 1907. Narodni
Gallery , Prague. 2 Aug. 2009.
Clark, Anna. “Re: The Renaissance.” E-mail to the author. 2 Aug. 2009.
E-mail Communication Between Two Parties, Author Not Included:
Myers, David. "Re: Tutoring." E-mail to Jolie
Gonzales. 1 Dec. 2008.
Last Name, First. "Title of Entry." Weblog Entry.
Title of Weblog. Date Posted. Date Accessed
Queue, Susie. “My First Chat Session.” Weblog Entry. Susie’s UHCL Blog. 23 September, 2009. 30 September, 2009. (www.uhcl.edu/writingcenter).
Screen Name. "Comment Title." Weblog
comment. Date Comment Posted. "Title of
Blog Entry." Author of Blog Entry. Title of
Weblog. Date Accessed (URL).
Buxton, Camille. “Graphic Novels: Indian by Choice.” Weblog Entry. Graphic Novels. 27 September 2009. 29 September 2009 (http://llls5532yal.pbworks.com/user/eb96dbb25c18335d151393a762ff1090a380794b).
A Personal Interview
Queue, Susie. Personal interview. 10 July 2009.
"World War I." Encarta. CD-ROM. Seattle:
Broadcast Television or Radio Program
"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox. WXIA,
Atlanta. 19 Jul. 1998.
Hart, Lillian. “Computers in the Classroom.” University of Houston, Houston, TX 25 July 2006. Keynote Address.
"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends:
The Complete Sixth Season. Writ. Andrew
Reich and Ted Cohen. Dir. Kevin Bright. NBC.
10 Feb. 2000. Warner Brothers, 2004. DVD.
A Music Album
Foo Fighters. In Your Honor. RCA, 2005. CD.
Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind.
Geffen, 1991. MP3.
Ed Wood. Dir. Tim Burton. Perf. Johnny Depp,
Martin Landau, Sarah Jessica Parker, and Patricia Arquette. 1994. Touchstone, 2004. DVD.
The Usual Suspects. Dir. Bryan Singer. Perf.
Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz
Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benecio del Toro. Polygram, 1995. Film.
For the following, use the original URL form when citing in the Works Cited page:
An entire website
A page on a website
Images from web sites original to that site
Special thanks to the Purdue OWL for providing guides and examples that were used for this presentation.
Purdue OWL. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 10 May 2008. Web. 30 July 2009.
Modern Language Association. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: MLA Assoc., 2009. Print.