The Gallipoli Campaign and the ANZAC Legend. The Gallipoli campaign and the Anzac legend which emerged from it have had a significant impact on ideas about Australia's national identity .
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The Gallipoli campaign and the Anzac legend which emerged from it have had a significant impact on ideas about Australia's national identity.
There were five particularly 'digger-like' qualities which emerged from the ANZACs when faced with hardship during the Gallipoli Campaign. These included:
It is precisely this type of person and this type of soldier who gave the ANZACstheir reputation and instilled a new national pride in Australia
The war on the Western Front had reached a stalemate. The war on the Eastern Front was going badly for the Russians
Note: The Anzac landing 25 April 1914 was at 4:15 am and they therefore landed in darkness
Anzacs Miniseries 1985
Anzac landing 01:00 – 9:40
Battles of Gallipoli -Lone Pine and The NekIn August, the British decided to try a new tactic to break the stalemate at Gallipoli. Anzac troops were to attack the Turkish strongholds at Lone Pine and The Nek in the hope of distracting attention from Allied troops landing at Suvla Bay and Allied attacks at Sari Bair. The aim was to gain control of Sari Bair and link the Anzac front with Suvla Bay.
LONE PINE August 6 – 10 1915 The Anzacs succeeded in taking Lone Pine but at a huge cost to both sides. Over four days of bitter hand-to-hand fighting the Anzacs suffered 2300 casualties and the Turks suffered 6000. Seven Australians gained Victoria Crosses as a result of this action.
The Nek - 7 August 1915The attack at the Nek was even worse. Four waves of effectively suicidal charges by the 3rd Light Horse Brigade went ‘over the top’ to attack the Turkish trenches at ‘Baby 700’, only 27 metres away.
For many people, both then and now, the participation of Australian soldiers in the Gallipoli campaign was the symbol of Australia's coming of age as a nation.
British war correspondent Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett (1881–1931) helped create the Anzac Legend with his newspaper report on the Gallipoli landing 8 May 1915.
Ashmead-Bartlett's article on the 8th of May 1915 was the first report on the landing of the 25th April that Australian newspapers published. It found an appreciative and ready audience among those who:
Private John Simpson Kirkpatrick (1892–1915) was an Englishman who had lived in Australia since 1910 after deserting his position in the merchant navy. Hoping to get back to England, he enlisted in the AIF in August 1914 under the name ‘John Simpson’. He ended up at Anzac Cove.
Simpson's actions there were mentioned in official reports and became part of a 1916 book entitled ‘Glorious Deeds of Australasians in the Great War’.
He was meant to serve as a stretcher-bearer transporting seriously wounded men from the front lines back down to Anzac Cove. Instead, he worked by himself, with a donkey, delivering water as he made his way up the heights above the beach, through the dangerous Shrapnel and Monash Gullies and then bringing the wounded back down on his donkey.
On 25 April 1916 the landing at Gallipoli one year earlier was commemorated. This tradition has continued as Anzac Day on 25th April each year.
Red poppies which Australian servicemen later saw in the fields in France on the Western Front in 1916 & 1917 have become the emblem of World War I and Anzac Day.