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Pre-clinical Periodontics. Dr Jamal Naim PhD in Orthodontics. Classification of periodontal diseases. Definitions. Gingivitis and periodontitis are inflammatory diseases of bacterial origin.

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pre clinical periodontics

Pre-clinical Periodontics

Dr Jamal Naim

PhD in Orthodontics


of periodontal diseases


Gingivitis and periodontitis are inflammatory diseases of bacterial origin.

Gingivitis is completely reversible, but the destruction caused by periodontitis is partially reversible.

gingivitis versus periodontitis
Gingivitis versus Periodontitis

Early definitions:

Gingivitis is inflammation limited to the gingivae in which the JE remains attached to the tooth at its original level and is completely reversible.

gingivitis versus periodontitis2
Gingivitis versus Periodontitis

If there is any destruction (attachment loss) in the tooth supporting tissues (PDL, Gingiva, alveolar bone), then we speak about periodontitis.

According to these early definitions the presence of gingival inflammation in a patient with existing but not progressing attachment loss is also called periodontitis.

gingivitis versus periodontitis3
Gingivitis versus Periodontitis

Periodontitis with attachment loss and infrabony pocket

gingivitis versus periodontitis4
Gingivitis versus Periodontitis

Recent definitions:

Gingivitis is the inflammation of a periodontium with no attachment loss or with previous attachment loss that is stable and not progressing.

Periodontitis is the inflammation of a periodontium caused by specific microorganisms resulting in progressive destruction of the PDL and alveolar bone (attachment loss) with pocket formation, recession or both.

classification of periodontal diseases
Classification of periodontal diseases
  • Gingivitis
    • Mild
    • Moderate
    • Severe
    • Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative
    • Modulated by hormones
    • Gingival overgrowth and etc.
  • Periodontitis
    • Adult Periodontitis
    • Rapidly progressive Periodontitis (RPP)
    • Localized juvenile Periodontitis (LJP)
    • ANUP


AAP until 1999

European workshop on Perio 1993

classification of periodontal diseases2
Classification of periodontal diseases

The need for a revised classification system for periodontal diseases was emphasized during the 1996 World Workshop in Periodontics. In 1997 the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) responded to this need and formed a committee to plan and organize an international workshop to revise the classification system for periodontal diseases.

On October 30–November 2, 1999, the International Workshop for a classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions was held and a new classification was agreed upon

classification of periodontal diseases3
Classification of periodontal diseases
  • Gingival diseases:

A. Dental plaque-induced gingival diseases

      • ?
      • ?
      • etc.

B. Non-plaque-induced gingival lesions

      • ?
      • ?
      • etc.
classification of periodontal diseases4
Classification of periodontal diseases

II. Chronic Periodontitis:

A. Localized

B. Generalized

III. Aggressive Periodontitis:

A. Localized

B. Generalized

classification of periodontal diseases5
Classification of periodontal diseases

IV. Periodontitis as a Manifestation of Systemic Diseases:

A. Associated with hematological disorders

B. Associated with genetic disorders

C. Not otherwise specified (NOS)

V. Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases:

A. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG)

B. Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (NUP)

classification of periodontal diseases6
Classification of periodontal diseases

VI. Abscesses of the Periodontium:

A. Gingival abscess

B. Periodontal abscess

C. Pericoronal abscess

VII. Periodontitis Associated With Endodontic Lesions:

A. Periodontic-endodontic lesions

B. Endodontic-periodontic lesions

C. Combined periodontic-endodontic lesions

classification of periodontal diseases7
Classification of periodontal diseases

VIII. Developmental or Acquired Deformities and Conditions:

A. Localized tooth-related factors that modify or predispose to plaque-induced gingival diseases/periodontitis

B. Mucogingival deformities and conditions around teeth

C. Mucogingival deformities and conditions on edentulous ridges

D. Occlusal trauma

pre clinical periodontics1

Pre-clinical Periodontics

Dr Jamal Naim

PhD in Orthodontics

Etiology & pathogenesis

of periodontal diseases

bacteria exist in different shapes



Curved rods

Spiral (spirochaetes)

Bacteria exist in different shapes

Bacteria arrange themselves as:

  • Pairs (diplococci)
  • Chains (streptococci)
  • Grape-like clusters (staphylococci)
gram staining characteristics
Gram-staining characteristics

Classified into two major subgroups:

  • Gram-positive (purple)
  • Gram-negative (pink)

What for?

  • Bacteria identification
  • Therapy of bacterial infection
origin of normal oral flora
Origin of normal oral flora
  • Sterile until birth, bacteria acquired from birth canal from mother
  • Infant exposed to flora of mother, other people and organisms in the environment
  • Oral flora on the child’s first birthday usually consist of streptococci, staphylococci, lactobacillus, less frequently isolated actinomyces, prevotella, fusobacterium species
origin of normal oral flora1
Origin of normal oral flora
  • The pioneer species are usually streptococci which bind to mucosal epithelium and remain throughout life
  • The metabolic activity of the pioneer community then alters the oral environment to facilitate colonization by other bacterial species.
origin of normal oral flora2
Origin of normal oral flora
  • The next change in this community occurs during and after tooth eruption:
    • Hard tissue surface of enamel (s. mutans)
    • Gingival crevice (prevotella gingivalis)
  • A second childhood is reached if all teeth are lost. Bacteria are very similar to those in a child before tooth eruption.
  • Introduction of a prosthetic appliance at this stage changes the microbial composition once again.
    • Acrylic denture (Candida)
    • Over 70 y (Staphylococcus aureus, lactobacilli)
the oral ecosystem
The oral ecosystem
  • The mouth has a natural microflora (commensal, indigenous, or resident) which exists in a harmony with the host, (like skin, Nasopharynx, Gastro-intestinal tract including oral cavity)
  • Commensal (resident) flora – fixed types of microbes regularly found in a given area at a given age
the oral ecosystem1
The oral ecosystem

Commensal bacteria do not cause disease unless:

  • Resistance of the HOST is poor OR
  • Commensal bacteria are relocated to sites where they don’t usually live.
    • e.g. streptococci from mouth Upper respiratory tract entering blood stream after tooth extraction, scaling & toothbrushing can cause endocarditis.
the oral ecosystem2
The oral ecosystem
  • 600 species of commensal (resident) bacteria
  • an estimated 415 species present in subgingival plaque.
  • Fungi (yeasts) such as Candida albicans,
  • Viruses eg herpes, Epstein-Barr.
the oral ecosystem3
The oral ecosystem

The nature of the site determines the type of bacteria.

ie. interproximal, occlusal, supragingival, subgingival

the oral ecosystem4
The oral ecosystem
  • Transient flora – non-pathogenic or potentially pathogenic flora on skin or mucous membranes; derived from the environment & does not establish permanently.
  • Transient flora – of little significance as long as the normal resident flora remains in place.
the oral ecosystem5
The oral ecosystem

Diverse habitats for bacteria:

  • tongue (provides the home for

the majority of oral bacteria)

  • Mucosa (K, non-K)
  • teeth (non-shedding area)
  • gingival crevice,
  • saliva (contains up to 108 bacteria/ml),
  • tonsils.
  • Prosthodontic and orthodontic appliances
w hat is the white stuff present on the labial surfaces of the lower anterior teeth
What is the ‘white stuff’ present on the labial surfaces of the lower anterior teeth?

How does the white stuff form ?

Does the white deposit cause any problems for the gums or teeth ?

Why are the labial surfaces of the teeth partly brown ?

dental deposits
Dental Deposits

1. Acquired pellicle

2. Dental plaque/biofilm

3. Dental calculus

4. Food debris

5. Materia Alba

acquired pellicle
Acquired pellicle
  • composed of

- salivary glycoproteins (mucins)

- No cells, no minerals, no bacteria

  • structure

- surface layer & sub-surface layer

- homogenous

- very thin 1-10um

  • clinical appearance

- translucent & colorless, invisible to naked eye

formation o f pellicle
Formation of pellicle
  • Spontaneous
  • Bacteria not necessary(forms in germ free animals)
  • Forms from salivary glycoproteins by selective adsorption
  • Reforms very rapidly on the clean tooth surface within seconds
  • Takes 1 week to mature
function clinical significance of pellicle
Function & Clinical significance of pellicle

Protective functions:

  • Reservoir of ions eg., calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions
  • Acts as a semi-permeable membrane.

(imp in demineralisation- remineralisation, allows ion exchange)

  • Restricts diffusion of acids - protects enamel from minor acid attack
  • Lubricant - can protect tooth from wear
  • Antibacterial factors – IgA, Lysozyme
function clinical significance of pellicle1
Function & Clinical significance of pellicle

Damaging functions

  • Influence while bacteria colonise the tooth (plays a role in the formation of Dental Plaque)
  • Nutrient supply for some bacteria in dental plaque
  • Presence of pellicle alters surface energy of tooth (important by use of dental adhesive materials)
  • Difficult to remove with toothbrushing, professionalcleaning needed

Capnocytophaga species






Fusobacterium species

Motile gram-negative rods and spirochetes

Other gram-positive rods



Actinomyces species

Prevotella intermedia

Early colonizers

Late colonizers

dental plaque dental biofilms
Dental plaque/Dental Biofilms


It is a soft, non-mineralisedmicrobial deposit which forms on the hard tissue surfaces of the mouth (and dental prostheses), comprising living and dead bacteria and their products together with the host compounds mainly derived from saliva.


Dental plaque

1mg of plaque contains about 108 bacteria

what are biofilms
What are biofilms??

Biofilms are highly organized communities (cities) of microbes with their own:

  • nutrient delivery
  • waste disposal
  • communication
  • defences systems.
what are biofilms1
What are biofilms??

Microbial biofilms is composed of:

  • Bacteria
  • A matrix of:
    • Glycoproteins
    • Extracellular polysaccharides (glucans and fructans)
  • The entire structure is embedded in a sticky substrate produced by the bacteria.
  • The substrate holds the microbial city together & adheres it to the pellicle.
what are biofilms2
What are biofilms??
  • The adherence through the matrix makes it impossible to rinse it away and have to be removed mechanically (scaling, toothbrushing etc.)
  • Differing environments exist within the microcolonies (pH, oxygen)
  • Microorganisms in biofilms can be resistant to antibiotics, antimicrobials (eg some mouth-rinses), and host defenses
what are biofilms3
What are biofilms??
  • Colour
    • If thin – it is invisible
    • If thick – variable clinic appearance

adults: white -yellowish

children: white – can be coloured (brown, orange, green - dependson type of bacteria – chromogenic bacteria can cause plaque to be coloured)

  • Texture – sticky
  • Thickness – variable
what are biofilms4
What are biofilms??
  • Distribution: Plaque is categorized as:
    • Supragingival
      • Fissure plaque- mainly in molar fissures.
      • Approximal plaque
      • Smooth surface
    • Subgingival