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DIODE LASERS IN CLINICAL PERIODONTICS Tartu , Estonia 19.10.2012. Saint Petersburg Pavlov's State Medical University Department of therapeutic stomatology . Lukavenko Alina DMD, Ph.D. Loboda Ekaterina DMD, Ph.D. Orekhova Liudmila

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slide1
DIODE LASERS IN CLINICAL PERIODONTICS

Tartu, Estonia

19.10.2012

Saint Petersburg Pavlov's State Medical University

Department of therapeutic stomatology

LukavenkoAlina

DMD, Ph.D

Loboda Ekaterina

DMD, Ph.D

OrekhovaLiudmila

DMD, D.Med.Sc., prof., head of therapeutic Dentestry Department of SSMU, Editor-in-Chief of Parodontologiya Journal

slide2

The LASER– Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation;the source of the electromagnetic visible, infra-red and ultra-violet ranges based on compelled radiation of atoms and molecules

Lasers in medicine

Ophthaolmology

Ar, Kr, Excimer, Ho:YAGEr:YAG, Nd:YAG

Neurosurgery

CO2, Nd:YAG

OtolaryngologyNd:YAG, CO2, Er:YAG,

StomatologyNd:YAG, Er:YAG,

Er, Cr:YSGG, CO2, Ar, Dioden

PulmonologyNd:YAG,

Cardiology

Nd:YAG,

GastroenterologyNd:YAG, Ar

Urology

Nd:YAG, Alexandrit,CO2, Er:YAG

OncologyNd:YAG,CO2,

Photodynamic

OrthopedicsHo:YAG, CO2, Er:YAG, Nd:YAG

Gynecology

Nd:YAG, CO2, Er:YAG

DermatologyAlexandrit, Ar, Er:YAG,Eksymern,

Photodynamic, CO2, Kr, Kupfer, Nd:YAG

AngioplasticNd:YAG, Er:YAG, Photodynamic

slide3

Laserdevice

mirror of

complete reflection

reflector

partially reflecting mirror

or exit mirror

resonator or

solid mirror

laser environment

environment

pulse lamp

reflector

slide4

Parameters of laser radiation

wavelength – distance which the wave passes for one period, λnm

energy of radiation– energy transferred by a wave, ЕJ

energy density– the quantity of energy falling on unit of area of the

irradiated surface, II =Е / SJ/sm2

radiation capacity– quantity of energy given for a unit of time, W = E / tW

capacity density– the capacity falling on unit of the irradiated surface,

Р = W / SW/sm2

Dose - the quantity of energy absorbed by biological fabricsD = P x tW*s/sm2

slide6

1/sm

Er:YAG

Nd:YAG

Ar

Diod

Ho:YAG

CO2

105

104

103

102

101

100

10-1

10-2

10-3

980

1064

2080

9600/10600

100

488

514

2940

nm

Absorption of laser radiation by various components of biological tissue

haemoglobin

water

Melanin

protein

factor of absorption

hydroxyapatite

dispersion

length of a wave

slide7

laser interaction with a tissue: raypath

Character of interaction

reflection

dispersion

sorbtion

transmission

slide8

Spectrum of electromagnetic radiation

invisible ionizing radiation

invisible ionizing radiation

visible light

0.001µ

0.400µ

0.750µ

30.0µ

3.0µ

Ultra-violetrays

Nearinfrared

Midinfrared

Farinfrared

X-rays

ArFexcimer

0.01µ

Argon0.488µ

0.514µ

Nd:YAG

1.06µ

Er:YAG

2.94µ

CO2

10.6µ

XeClexcimer0.308µ

Heliumneon

0.632µ

Ho:YAG

2.12µ

Diode

980µ

a pplication of different types of laser radiation in medicine
Application of different types of laser radiation in medicine

Laser influence

The low-energy

0,5 – 3 mW

The midl-energy

200 – 2000 mW

The high-energy

20 – 100 W

  • 1. Intensive therapy
  • 2. Reflexotherapy
  • 3. Humoral rehabilitation

1. Physiotherapy

2. Endoscopy

3. Photodynamic therapy

4. Lasergyperthermia

1. Surgery, oncology

2. Cosmetology

slide10

Application of different lasers in stomatology

Cariesandnoncarieslesions

Diagnostics

Whitening

Diseases of oral mucosa

Endodontics

Conservative periodontics

Surgery in periodontics

Orthopedics

Physiotherapy

Orthodontics

Surgery

slide11

DiodLaser

Adiodelaserisalaserwhoseactivemediumisasemiconductorsimilartothatfoundinalight-emitting diode. The mostcommontypeoflaserdiodeisformedfromap-n junctionandpoweredbyinjectedelectric current.

PACT

ALOD

LATUS

LAZURIT

DOCTOR SMILE™ WISER LA3D0001.3

Diod laser Picasso

SIROLaser Advance

SIROLaser

slide12
The mostcommontypeoflaserdiodeisformedfromap-n junctionandpoweredbyinjected electric current.
application area of diod laser radiation
Application areaof diod laser radiation

capacity

3 W

2W

Physiotherapy

1W

Photodynamic therapy

Surgery

slide14

Аdvantages of the diode laser

  • direct transformations of an electromagniticcurrent to the light
  • high optical factor( near50% )
  • big range of radiationfrom400 till 3000 nm
  • flexible management of radiation
  • small dimensions of the device
  • low price
slide15

Therapy

1. physiotherapeutic rehabilitation

2. Periodontal space processing

3. photodynamic therapy

Clinical applications of diod lasersin periodontology

Surgery1. correction of short frenulum, shallow vestibulum, lingual frenulum, lateral frenulum2. correction of gingiva3. Periodontal space processing (granulations remuval)4. helen screw installation

slide16

photochemical- initiate chemical reactions photopolymerization

  • Chemical bonds in molecules broken directly by laser light
  • Photodynamic therapy: creates biochemically reactive form of oxygen
  • biostimulation
  • Provides relief from pain
  • Stimulates wound healing
  • Alter biological process

Basic Types of Laser Tissue Interaction

Photothermal- Coagulation- warming- denaturing- vaporization- carbonizationphotodistruptive effects- plasma created- disrupts of breaks apart tissue- fluorescence- re-emission of absorbed laser light

slide17

Depending on parameters of laser radiation, on features of interaction with biological tissues there are:

1. Fluorescence (Luminiscence) – highlighting a biomolecule of quantum of light with bigger length of a wave (smaller energy).

Scope– diagnostics with use of special hromoforin biological tissue.

2. Photochemical reaction under the influence of visible and infra-red radiation.

Scope– laser therapy(at radiation of a tissue there are chemical and metabolic reactions).

3. Transfer of excitation energy to other molecule leading to subsequent reactions

Scope– photodynamic therapy.

4. Photothermalreaction – excitation energy

turns into the therma energyl.

Scope– laser surgery &intensive thermometry.