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Rise of Nation-States & the Crusades. IDENTIFICATIONS Capetians William the Conqueror Battle of Hastings (1066) Otto I Crusades. OUTLINE Spread of Christianity Rise of Nation States France England Germany Crusades. Spread of Christianity. France, 12th Century.

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rise of nation states the crusades
Rise of Nation-States & the Crusades

IDENTIFICATIONS

Capetians

William the Conqueror

Battle of Hastings (1066)

Otto I

Crusades

  • OUTLINE
  • Spread of Christianity
  • Rise of Nation States
    • France
    • England
    • Germany
  • Crusades
the capetians 987 1328
The Capetians (987-1328)

Hugh Capet (Ruled: 987-996)

In 987, permanent shift of the kingship from the Carolingians to the Capetians

Hugh was determined to make the crown hereditary

Had eldest son ‘associated’ to him, i.e. recognized as heir by noblity

emergence of england
Emergence of England

Achieves political unity much earlier than France

1066, crisis develops when Edward the Confessor dies

Edward named Harold II (Godwinson) as his successor

Rival is William, duke of Normandy (William the Conqueror, William I)

Battle of Hastings (1066)

william i 1066 1087
William I (1066-1087)

Centralized kingdom

Placed Norman order upon England

William was the first ruler to show how feudal principles could be used as the foundation for a strong, centralized monarchy

medieval germany
Medieval Germany

Contrast with England & France

  • Elective monarchy
  • Local feudal lords retained significant power in Germany
  • Hindered attempts at achieving a unified nation-state
medieval germany1
Medieval Germany
  • Otto I (937-973)
    • Crowned Emperor 962
    • Refounded the Holy Roman Empire
  • Otto II (d. 987)
  • Otto III (d. 1004)
  • Henry III (r. 1039-56)
    • Imperial control over the Church is at its apex
clunaic reforms and medieval society
Clunaic Reforms and Medieval Society
  • Church Reform in the 11th and 12th centuries
    • Gregory VII (1073-1085)
    • Investiture conflict with Emperor Henry IV
  • Papacy of Innocent III (1198-1216)
  • Impact of Emphasis on Spirituality: New Orders
    • Carthusians (1084) St. Bruno
    • Cistercians (1098) Robert of Molesme
  • High Medieval Society (ca.1000–1300)
    • Cathedral building (Romanesque to Gothic)
church reform in the 11 th 12 th centuries
Church Reform in the 11th & 12th Centuries
  • Practices criticized
    • Investiture
    • Simony
    • Clerical marriage, “Concubinage”
  • The Monastery at Cluny (910)
  • Papal Support: Leo IX and Nicholas II
    • Election Decree (1059)
  • Gregory VII (1073-1085), Henry IV (1056-1106) and the Investiture Struggle
    • Canossa (1077)
first crusade 1095 1099
First Crusade (1095-1099)

Byzantine Empire under attack from Muslim Turks

1071 – Battle of Manzikert, Turks capture Jerusalem

1094 – Alexis I appealed to Pope Urban II for help

1095 – Urban II’ speech at Clermont

1096 – Peasants’ Crusade

1096 – Official crusade launched

1099 – Crusaders capture Jerusalem

second crusade 1147 49
Second Crusade (1147–49)

1144 Muslims defeat Europeans at Edessa, which motivates the 2nd Crusade (1147)

Preached by Bernard of Clarivaux

Poor decisions lead to disaster for the crusaders

Crusades now included an expansionist mission in addition to a pilgrimage

Origin of Military Orders: Templars, Hospitalers, Teutonic Knights

third crusade 1188 1192
Third Crusade (1188-1192)

Muslim leader Saladin reconquers Egypt and most crusading states

1187 – Battle of Hattin.

Jerusalem surrenders, which precipitates the 3rd Crusade

Byzantium makes a pact with Saladin

Crusade disintegrates through lack of cooperation

fourth crusade 1202 1204
Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)

Pope Innocent III organizes crusade under papal auspices

Crusaders never reach the Holy Land

Diverted by Venetians

Byzantium victim of the 4th Crusade

Cause: dynastic intrigue & greed

1204 Crusaders sack Constantinople