RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLINESS OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES OF INDIAN RAILWAYS
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA IR - Resources • 1.4 Million employees • 108,500 Track Km • 63,000 Route Km • 7,000 Stations • 7,900 Locomotives • 230,000 wagons • 45,000 coaches
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA IR - Operations • 5 Billion Passengers per annum • Moving Entire Swiss Population Twice in a day • 8,000+ Passenger Trains per day • Computerised reservations – One million transactions per day • Amongst the largest IT applications in the world • 670 Million tonnes Freight per annum • 3,000 Freight trains on the system • Revenue – US $ 12 Billion per annum
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA IR Service Profile - Passenger • Diverse Customer Base • 8 travel classes • Charge for 1000 Km range US $ 2 to 50 • 58% Suburban passengers • 150 Km Monthly Fare US $ 8 • Amongst the Lowest Passenger to Freight rate ratios in the world = 0.3
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA IR Service Profile – Freight • Entire Spectrum • Bulk coal/ores – 63% • Bagged commodities – 23% • Iron & Steel – 4% • Petro Products – 6% • Containerised cargo – 4%
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Growth in 2005-06
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Growth in 2006-07 (six-month period )
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Diesel vs. Electric Traction • Total Annual Consumption • Diesel Oil : 2 Billion Litres • Electric Energy : 10 Billion Kwh • % Traffic • Total locomotives • Diesel : 4801 • Electric : 3065
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Diesel Traction in India • Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW), the manufacturing unit of Indian Railways produces 130 diesel locomotives per annum. • Majority of Diesel Locomotives fleet includes • 16-cylinder ALCO & EMD Engines; • 12-cylinder ALCO Engines; and • 6-cylinder ALCO Engines. • Fuel Bill of Indian Railways is US $1.3 Billion. • To reduce high-energy costs, RDSO has worked to improve energy efficiency of their Diesel engines.
Test Bed Test Commander HSDA System RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Engine Test Bed Facilities • Test bed facilities in RDSO have four Test Cells housing four types of DLW manufactured Engines. • 16 cylinder GM-EMD, • 16 cylinder ALCO, • 12 cylinder ALCO, • 6 cylinder ALCO • Each test cell has Test Commander comprising of • microprocessor controlled Data acquisition systems; and • Video Display Unit (VDU) • Test beds have been provided with High Speed Data Acquisition System to • acquire 100 MHz frequency data.
250 166 4000 HP 225 3600 HP 206.2 156 3300 HP 154 193.7 SFC gm/bhp-hr. HP/Cylinder 151.5 3100 HP 150 162.5 2600 HP 1960-90 1990-2000 Year Stage-wise improvement in BSFC and increase in Horse-Power per cylinder RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Improvement in Energy Efficiency Sustained efforts made to improve the diesel locomotive technology of 1950s, entirely through in-house research and development. 2000-2006 2006-2008
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Energy Efficiency Improvements First stage modifications in the 16-cylinder ALCO engines resulted in: • 6% reduction of fuel consumption at full load from 166 gm/bhp/hr to 156 gm/bhp/hr. • 15 % reduction in the % lube-fuel oil ratio from 1.5% to 1.27%.
Modification In Cooling Water Piping RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Modifications Stage-I Efficient After –Cooler • Water to after-cooler fed directly from the radiator. • Size of the core increased. • Increase in cooling effectiveness from 50% to 75%.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Modifications Stage-I • Plunger diameter of fuel injection pump increased from 15 mm to 17 mm. • The modification resulted in increase of peak fuel line pressure from 750 to 850 bars. Modification of Fuel Injection Pump
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Modifications Stage-I • Global Efficiency improved from 50% to 60%. • Increase in booster air pressure from 1.2 bars to 1.6 bars. Development of Improved turbochargers
Modification of Cam Shaft Aluminium Dish Top Steel Cap Development of 12.5 CR Steel Cap Pistons RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Modifications Stage-I • Change in Inlet and Exhaust air cam lobes profile as well as Increased valve overlap to improve scavenging. • Steel cap pistons provided to withstand higher firing pressures.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Energy Efficiency Improvements In Second stage, power of the engine was increased along with the reduction in fuel consumption and lube-fuel oil ratio: • Power from 2600 HP (FE) to 3100 HP by increasing the engine rpm from 1000 to 1050 rpm • 2% reduction of fuel consumption at full load from 156 gm/bhp-hr to 153 gm/bhp-hr at 8th notch • 12 % reduction in the % lube-fuel oil ratio from 1.27% to 1.12%.
FE Piston Rings High Efficiency Turbo Multigrade Lube Oil RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Modifications Stage-II • Increase in the Booster pressure from 1.6 to 1.9 bar. • Speed of rotor increased from 23,000 to 27,000 rpm. • Piston ring set changed to • barrel, taper, taper and • 2 no. oil conformable • These oils have Viscosity Index Improver additive.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Energy Efficiency Improvements In the third stage, the technological improvements have been made to : • uprate the engine to 3300 HP in the year 2001 and to 3600 HP in 2002. • 1% reduction of fuel consumption at full load from 153 gm/bhp-hr to 151.5 gm/bhp-hr on top notch. • 11 % reduction in the % lube-fuel oil ratio from 1.12% to 1%.
New Generation Turbochargers RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Modifications Stage-III Stiffer Unit Cam Shaft • Camshaft strengthened to take increased stress. • Fuel cam lobe profile modified for sharper fuel injection. • These aircooled turbochargers have higher global efficiency. • Rotor speed of these turbochargers also increased resulting in increased BAP.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Modifications Stage-III • Air intake valve angle reduced to take care of increased heat load. • Location of cooling passages changed to give better heat transfer. Development of Plus cylinder head
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Energy Efficiency Improvements Modifications in the fourth stage have been tested on test Beds but yet to be implemented. With these modifications : • Fuel consumption has been reduced by more than 2% over duty cycle. • Lube oil consumption has been further reduced by more than 6%.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Modifications Stage-IV • EFI pump sets the start and end of injection for each cylinder individually . • The system eliminates many mechanical engine components including the Governor itself. Electronic Fuel Injection System
SingleHelix Plunger Double Helix Plunger RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Modifications Stage-IV • Additional Helix provided on top edge of plunger • so as to optimise the opening of spill port • resulting in optimisation of start of injection at part load as well. Double Helix Fuel Injection Pump
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Diesel Traction in India • So far, no Standards have been laid down in India for Emission norms of Diesel Locomotives. • Indian Railways, being socially conscious organisation, is making efforts to • reduce Diesel engine pollutants namely NOx, SO2, HC, CO, CO2 and Particulates having serious effect on health and environment.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Emissions from ALCO Engines • NOx emissions measurements made in Nov. 1996 on 6-cylinder engine using Chemiluminescent detector based equipment. • The measurements gave the NOx value of 11.09 gm./kW-hr.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Test Bed measurements • Measurements on 12 and 16 Cyl. Engine made by using a portable emission measuring equipment in November 2000.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Emissions from ALCO Engines • Only gaseous emission measurements could be made with the portable equipment . • Emission measurements were made at different engine configurations. It has been seen that • Emissions are higher only for CO and NOx. • Since HC values in the ALCO engines are much lower than the limits, it will be possible to recuce CO and NOx .
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Emissions Measurements • Since portable equipments do not meet International standards, RDSO has procured the dedicated Mass emission measuring equipment. • The same is presently under commissioning on the test beds of RDSO. The equipment under commissioning includes
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Trials with Bio-Diesel • Use of environmental friendly Bio-diesel as an alternate fuel has been tried out. • Testing on engine test bed has been conducted followed by field trials. • Following observations have been made : • No significant power loss observed. • Specific fuel consumption is higher. • Exhaust gas temperatures have reduced. • Boost air pressures have got reduced. • Gaseous hydrocarbons have reduced.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Use of Bio-Diesel Other action taken to promote use of Bio-Diesel in Indian Railways is as under: • Southern Railway and South Eastern Railway have got trans-esterification plant and are running few trains with B10 diesel. • All the Railways are growing Jatropha plants on their surplus land. • Indian Railways have signed an MOU with Indian Oil Corporation to plant Jatropha saplings on the land of Indian Railways.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Use of CNG in DEMU • Use of CNG as an alternate fuel has been investigated on DEMU engines to see the environmental impact. • One rake of CNG DEMU is presently running in Delhi area. The special Features of CNG DEMU include: • 30% savings in operation and maintenance cost. • Savings of Rs.27 lakhs per engine per year. • Reduced engine wear. • Reduced lubricating oil consumption. • Substantial reduction in Exhaust emissions.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Action Plan to reduce Emissions Following future action plan has been made to measure and reduce Emissions: • Base-line emissions measurement will start immediately after commissioning of Mass emission measurment equipment. • A trans-esterification plant is being planned at RDSO to optimize engine parameters with Bio-diesels produced from different plants.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Action Plan to reduce Emissions • A leading engine designer Consultant is being contacted to assist Railways in reducing Emissions. • Emission measurement Car for measuring in-use emissions in field is planned.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Emissions from New Engines Results of Emissions and Particulates measurements made for 16 cylinder EMD 4000 HP engine in 2001: • It is seen from above that • HC, PM and NOx Emissions are marginally higher than limits. • Since CO values are lower than the limits in the standards, it is possible to reduce HC, PM and NOx Emissions.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Effluents Control in Diesel Sheds Uncontrolled effluents of diesel sheds have an impact on the environment. Following work has been done to achieve the above: • An Environmental Management System (EMS) has been laid down • the head of the maintenance unit is responsible to establish environmental policy. • A Waste Management System (WMS) has been laid down as per which • the main hazardous wastes generated in the maintenance unit have been identified and • the procedures for disposal of these waste materials have been laid down.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Effluents Control in Diesel Sheds • Main equipments for disposal of hazardous as well as non-hazardous wastes include: • Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) • Incinerator • Need for above Equipment, Design parameters, Specifications and Agencies for installation have been specified. • The Landfill sites for disposal of above waste have been included in the above system.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Thank You
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Fuel Efficiency Indices The following two fuel efficiency indices are popularly used on Indian Railways: Fuel Consumption on 8th Notch Fuel consumption at this notch is one of the important fuel efficiency index since • Fuel consumption at 8th notch is highest; and • Locomotives run at this notch for longer duration. Fuel Consumption over Duty cycle Notch-wise percentage running of locomotive over duty cycle for passenger and freight operations of Indian Railways locomotives is as under: Fuel consumption (in kg/hr) over duty cycle is calculated by taking weighted average of fuel consumption at every notch over duty cycle.
ALCO Locomotives Emissions - All values are in gm/bhp-hr - Measurements made with Portable equipment only
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Mass Emission measuring equipment Other equipments of Mass emission measuring equipment include:
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Environmental Management System The head of the maintenance unit has to establish environmental policy keeping in mind the following aspects : • Nature, scale and environmental impacts of activities and products. • Commitment to continual improvement and prevention of pollution. • Minimisation of the waste material generated during activities. • Commitment to comply with environmental legislation / Regulation and other requirements. • Provide a framework for setting and reviewing the environmental objectives and targets.
RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA Waste Management System The procedures for disposal of waste materials includes: • Collection and disposal of the waste generated in diesel loco sheds; • Disposal of waste oil; • Measures to control spillage of fuel & lubricating oil; • Leakage / spillage of fuel oil from fuel installation or fire anywhere in the shed; • Acid spillage.
Emissions limits as per International Standards All values in gm/bhp-hr