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HIS 112 Chapter 27

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  1. HIS 112Chapter 27 Headed for War Again

  2. At the same time FDR was president in the U.S., Adolf Hitler , head of the Nazi Party, became Chancellor of Germany (Prime Minister of the Weimar Republic) • The president of Germany at the time was Paul von Hindenburg • When Hitler became Chancellor, he began working to gain absolute power, especially after the death of Paul von Hindenburg

  3. Hitler despised democracy • He worked his way into the hearts and minds of the German people by playing up their frustrations • The Treaty of Versailles • Their enemies: Jews, Communists, and Socialists

  4. New Deal Foreign Policy • Cordell Hull was named Secretary of State • He was content to follow the foreign policy guidelines of Hoover and his Secretary of State, Henry Stinson • FDR initiated the Good Neighbor Policy, the role the U.S. was to play in Central and South America

  5. Good Neighbor Policy • A less controversial way of maintaining influence in Latin America • The U.S. would be less blatant in its domination of Latin America • Less willing to defend exploitative business practices • Less eager to send in military force • American investments in Latin America would increase

  6. U.S. would train the national guard in various Latin American nations to support their dictators like Trujillo in Dominican Republic, 1930-1961 and Somozas in Nicaragua, 1936-1979 • FDR removed marines from Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic who had been sent there by other presidents to restore order and protect American interests • U.S. had large investments in Cuban sugar industry

  7. After a 1933 revolution led by Ramon Grau San Martin, which threatened American interests, U.S. encouraged a coup that brought Batista to power • Batista established a pro-American dictatorship that lasted until 1959 • 1917, Mexico claimed ownership of its land and raw materials and that threatened American investments • 1938, Mexico expropriated property of all foreign owned petroleum companies

  8. 1941, the U.S. conceded that Mexico owned its raw materials and then Mexico compensated American companies for their lost property • Roosevelt decided to take Mexico’s offer because he was afraid they would sell their oil to Germany and Japan, and he remembered the Zimmerman Telegram of World War I • At a Pan-American Conference the members agreed to reduce sales of raw materials to Germany, Japan, and Italy and increased sales to the U.S. showing their gratitude for removing soldiers from their countries

  9. New Deal Policy in Asia • Followed Hoover’s lead which was to maintain China’s independence and American trading rights called the Open Door Policy • U.S. tried to do this at the same time Japan was trying to take over China bit by bit • China’s leader at the time was Chiang Kai-shek who was disorganized, inefficient, corrupt, but anti-communist

  10. 1931, Japan took over Manchuria and set up the puppet state of Manchukuo • Stimson, Hoover’s Secretary of State, believed the U.S. should retaliate against Japan by imposing economic sanctions; Hoover disagreed • Instead, Hoover announced the U.S. would not recognize the legality of any territory taken by force • This was known as the Stimson Doctrinewhich was curious – Stimson didn’t recommend this

  11. 1932, Japan attacked Shanghai and terrorized the people • 1937, Japan bombed Shanghai and its civilians • FDR responded with words, not actions; he didn’t want war with Japan

  12. USSR • U.S. didn’t recognize the Soviet Union in the 1920s • However, some American did business with USSR • By 1930, USSR was the largest buyer of American agricultural and industrial equipment • With the depression, businessmen urged the formal recognition of USSR to stimulate American business

  13. FDR granted formal recognition to Soviet Russia in 1933 • Within a few years, Soviet-American relations had become embittered

  14. Neutrality Policy of U.S. • Neutrality Acts, 1935-1937 • Neutrality Act of 1935 – prohibited arms shipments to either side once the president had declared the existence of belligerency • Neutrality Act of 1936- forbade loans to belligerents • Neutrality Act of 1937- introduced cash-and –carry principle for trade with warring nations, and forbade Americans from traveling on belligerent vessels

  15. Worldwide Events Were Heating Up • 1935- Hitler introduced universal military training and Italy invade Ethiopia and took it only with Germany’s help • 1936- Francisco Franco, Spanish General, rebelled against an unstable democratic government in Spain; he succeeded after receiving support from Italy and Germany who tested their new weapons there • 1937- Japan took over Peiping, the northern capital of China, and then took most of China’s coastal peovinces

  16. March, 1938- the Anschluss: the forced political union of Germany with Austria, increasing Hitler’s resources • September, 1938- Hitler said he wanted to reunite all German-speaking people under one flag, so he demanded the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia be given to Germany – Appeasement • Britain and France let him have it hoping that was all he wanted

  17. March, 1939- Hitler seized the rest of Czechoslovakia

  18. Closer Look at 3 Aggressor Nations • Japan • Had few natural resources and little • Wanted China for economic reasons • Was the U.S.’ 3rd largest customer buying cotton, copper, scrap iron, and oil • American trade was important to Japan

  19. Italy • Benito Mussolini was its fascist leader • He was described as a strutting buffoon • By itself, Italy was no threat to the world • Couldn’t take over Ethiopia by itself; needed Germany’s help to do it

  20. Germany • Adolf Hitler was its fascist leader • Hitler was head of Nazi Party • Serious threat to world peace • Wrote down his plans for European domination in Mein Kampf; not taken seriously at first • Hitler knew just what he could get away with in Europe • Re-started arms industry • Re-started military training • Re-armed Rhineland • Took Austria • Took Sudetenland and Czechoslovakia

  21. Hitler’s actions broke the Treaty of Versailles • All 3 aggressor nations were anti-democratic • All exalted totalitarianism • All had Fascist governments • Hirohito – Emperor of Japan • Mussolini – Il Duce of Italy • Hitler – Fuhrer of Germany

  22. They all put the interests of the state over those of the individual • Nazism, with its racist policies, was criminal • Promoted a pure Aryan race • Promoted anti-Semitism • Felt any non-Aryan was subhuman: Jews and gypsies, for example Nazis disposed of, exiled, and silenced German communists, socialists, democrats, Jews, gypsies, handicapped, and homosexuals

  23. Hitler: • Brutalized Jews • Stripped them of their citizenship and civil rights • Deported them • Put them in concentration camps • Worked them to death or • Sent them to extermination camps, the Final Solution

  24. Each time Hitler broke a stipulation of the Treaty of Versailles, he got no resistance from other European nations • By September 1939, Hitler began to encounter some resistance from other European nations • Hitler and Stalin formed the Nazi-Soviet Pact – an agreement to help each other take over Poland in September of 1939

  25. Germany would invade from the west and USSR would invade from the east • 1 September 1939, the invasion of Poland began • In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany but weren’t adequately prepared to defend Poland • During the winter of 1939-1940, an uneasy quiet fell over Europe

  26. This was called the Phony War when neither side attacked the other • The French and the British had decided on a defensive war and waited at the Maginot Line, a system of fortifications France had constructed in the 1930s. • It ran along the common border between France and Germany • France and Britain then dropped pamphlets over Poland telling Hitler to go

  27. During the French and British silence, Hitler prepared for his Blitzkrieg, lightning war (fast-moving troops and tanks with air support) • Beginning in 1940, there were massive land, sea, and air attacks against other European countries • April 1940- Denmark and Norway were taken • May 1940- Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands fell • June 1940- France fell to Hitler

  28. After a 6-week fight, France fell • Britain had 300,000 men there and tried to quickly remove them in all manner of boats • Then Britain awaited Hitler’s attack on them • Germany bombarded England with aerial attacks during the summer of 1940

  29. Italy then joined in the fight with Germany against France • They also faced British and ANZAC forces (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) in Libya, North Africa

  30. Operation Barbarossa • USSR was under the impression that it was an ally of Germany • There was that Nazi-Soviet Pact • However, that proved to be false as of the summer of 1941 • Hitler remembered World War I and its 2-front war • To avoid that this time, Hitler made a pact with USSR just until western Europe had been subdued

  31. With western Europe fairly subdued, Hitler turned on USSR • Russians weren’t prepared • They lost ground until the fall; they then began to hold their ground • When the Russian winter began, Germans weren’t prepared for it • Hitler lost 750,000 men during his first year of attack

  32. German troops almost surrounded Leningrad in the north and Moscow to the south • 1942, Germans advanced towards Stalingrad, but their campaign stalled

  33. Changes in the American Attitude • American attitude about involvement in the war began to change during the summer of 1940 after • The fall of France • The resistance of the British As early as 1938 Roosevelt felt that only a show of force would stop Hitler but would not take definitive action without the backing of the American people

  34. 1939, at FDR’s request, Congress repealed the Neutrality Acts, so war materials could be sold on a cash-and-carry basis • FDR’s responses to Hitler’s victories: • Ordered the sale of surplus World War I equipment to Britain and France in May 1940 • Traded 50 old American destroyers to Britain for leases to bases in England in September 1940 • Approved Selective Training and Service Act, first peacetime draft in American history

  35. 1940, FDR ran for a third term against Wendell Wilkie • FDR won • After election, FDR send the Lend-Lease Bill to Congress in response to a request from Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of England • Lend-Lease was approved in March of 1941

  36. Lend-Lease allowed America to act as the “arsenal of democracy” where all sorts of arms could be “loaned” to Britain • Sent naval patrols to the Atlantic so they could protect delivery of weapons • Sent troops to Greenland • Sent aid to USSR The total of all this aid was $54 billion. By this time the U.S. was at war in everything but name

  37. August, 1941, FDR met with Churchill on 2 ships: Prince of Wales, British and the Augusta, American • Met off the coast of Newfoundland • Adopted mutual war aims • Called the Atlantic Charter • Self-determination of nations after the war • Free trade • Freedom of the seas • Disarmament of aggressor nations • United Nations, 1945

  38. Pro-war sentiment was growing, especially after some incidents between American destroyers and German submarines • Greer Incident, September 1941 – a German submarine fires on the Greer; FDR ordered them to fire on submarines on sight • Roosevelt did not tell the public that the Greer had been tailing the submarine for hours and reporting its location to British planes • Kearney & Reuban James, October of 1941 – Germans torpedoed Kearney and sank Reuban James; 100 sailors lost

  39. By autumn 1941, FDR believed he had the support of most Americans to enter the war against Germany • Hitler had to be stopped at any cost • The America First Committee opposed this move; they felt protecting Britain was not a worthy cause • While we debated war with Germany, Japan turned our eyes to the Pacific

  40. Japan • FDR had initiated a partial embargo against Japan in 1940 because it had not given up any Chinese territory • Then in July of 1941, FDR froze Japanese assets and ended trade with Japan • Negotiations were going on to end the embargo • Japan wanted a meeting between the Japanese Prime Minister and FDR • U.S. refused until Japan left China and got out of the Tripartite Pact (an alliance of Japan, Italy, & Germany)

  41. Having broken the Japanese Code, FDR knew Japan was committed to war if oil embargo wasn’t lifted and were preparing forces at the beginning of December 1941 • Even so, the U.S. did not know where they would attack and felt Japan would have to fire the first shot so to have the full support of the American people

  42. Pearl Harbor • The attack was on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 • Surprise attack on Sunday morning • Result: sank or badly damaged 8 battleships, 7 other vessels, 188 airplanes and killed or wounded 3,435 servicemen • 8 December 1941, FDR went before Congress and described 7 December as “ a day that will live in infamy”

  43. Both Houses, except for Representative Jeannette Rankin, a pacifist, voted for war • By December 1941, more than 1.5 million men were in uniform and most were well-trained • By the end of the war in 1945, 15 million had served • Majority -- drafted

  44. Cost of the war: • 1941 - $2 billion / month • 1942 - $15 billion/ month • 1945 – cost of war was $300 billion • National debt in 1941 - $48 billion • 1945 - $247 billion

  45. The size of the federal government grew from 1.1 million civilian employees in 1940 to 3.3 million in 1945 • There was waste, inefficiency, and corruption • Senator Harry S. Truman headed a committee to investigate this • This brought him to the attention of FDR and resulted in Truman being FDR’s Vice President during his short 4th term

  46. Factories began making war products • 1944, 96,000 airplanes came out of the factories • Unemployment ended in the U.S. during World War II • Factories had trouble finding enough workers • Blacks found security in war industries; they could not discriminate

  47. Women of all ages and levels of education worked in war industries • “Rosie the Riveter” • Independent women did not return to their homes after the war; they liked getting that paycheck

  48. U.S. Battle with Japan • When u.s. declared war on Japan, Germany declared war on U.S.; in turn, we declared war on Germany • But we had been attacked by Japan • After bombing Pearl Harbor, Japanese under Admiral Yamamoto quickly took • Malaysia, Hong Kong, Philippines • Java, Guam, 2 American Aleutian Islands • British Singapore, Burma, Dutch East Indies

  49. Japanese were establishing a buffer zone around Japan • When Japanese landed in the Philippines, the U.S. had troops on the island under the direction of Douglas MacArthur • When the island was about to fall to the Japanese, FDR got MacArthur and some troops out • 20,000 were left on Bataan Peninsula and on Corregidor

  50. Battle ended 6 July 1942 with Japanese as victors • Japanese then marched 10,000 U.S. prisoners to a prison camp in the interior, called the Bataan Death March • 1,000 died along the way • Many more died in the camp • Brutal treatment • By May 1942, Japanese had also taken Solomon Islands and most of New Guinea