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  1. UNIT 1, Part 3 Life Transitions Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue

  2. Unit 1, Part 3 MAIN MENU Life Transitions (pages 194–250) Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.

  3. SELECTION MENU Selection Menu (pages 251–263) Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read

  4. BEFORE YOU READ Meet Kay Boyle Click the picture to learn about the author.

  5. BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Story In “Winter Night,” a chance meeting occurs between a child who misses her mother and a woman who misses a child. Before you read the selection, think about the following questions: • Have you ever felt a connection with someone you were meeting for the first time? • What could you do to help someone who is grieving the loss of a loved one?


  6. BEFORE YOU READ Building Background This story takes place in New York City, probably around the mid-1940s, near the end of World War II (1939–1945). At that time, the horrors of Nazi concentration camps began to come to light. In these camps, Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler carried out his plan to “purify” Europe by killing millions of Jews, Gypsies, and members of other ethnic groups.

  7. BEFORE YOU READ Building Background On the U.S. home front during the war, women played a key role in the war effort by working in defense plants and in other businesses, replacing the millions of men who had gone off to war. Some women worked in professional capacities that had traditionally been reserved for men.

  8. BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Life Transitions As you read this story, think about how the child and the woman who comes to care for her experience and cope with change.

  9. BEFORE YOU READ Setting a Purpose for Reading Tone The toneof a story is the attitude the writer takes toward his or her subject matter. A writer’s tone may convey a variety of attitudes, including sympathy, objectivity, seriousness, irony, sadness, bitterness, or humor. As you read “Winter Night,” notice the tone of the story.

  10. BEFORE YOU READ Activating Prior Knowledge Activating prior knowledgeis considering what you already know about the world and using that knowledge to deepen your understanding of the literary work you are reading.

  11. BEFORE YOU READ Activating Prior Knowledge Reading Tip: Recording What You KnowUse a chart to record details from the story about which you have prior knowledge.

  12. BEFORE YOU READ abeyancen.a state of temporary inactivity (p. 253) All our work was held in abeyance until Martin told us to continue working. reprievev.to give temporary relief, as from something unpleasant or difficult (p. 253) Lily was reprieved from watching the toddler for five minutes, and then she resumed her job. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

  13. BEFORE YOU READ obscurityn.darkness; dimness (p. 254) It was hard to see anyone in the obscurity of the dimly lit park at night. derisionn.mockery; ridicule (p. 254) Lee’s derision included nasty comments about Angela’s work habits. singularadj.unusual or remarkable (p. 256) Clarence had a singular ability to say the right thing at the right time. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

  14. READING THE SELECTION Life Transitions Keep the following questions in mind as you read. What life transitions do you think Felicia has endured? Answer:Felicia’s father is at war and her mother is absent because of her work and social life.

  15. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tone Read the text highlighted in purple on page 253. What tone is conveyed by the description of the late winter afternoon, both inside and outside the apartment? Answer:The tone is apprehensive, bleak, and cold.

  16. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Activating Prior KnowledgeRead the text highlighted in blue on page 253.Why is the child feeling apprehensive? What is she reluctant to ask? Answer:Young children often feel anxious when it is dark and their parents are not home. She is reluctant to ask, “When will my mother be coming home?”

  17. READING THE SELECTION Life Transitions Read text highlighted in tan on page254.What does this detail tell you about Felicia’s life? Answer:Felicia’s life is full of uncertainty, and she spends a great deal of time in the care of indifferent adults.

  18. READING THE SELECTION Life Transitions Read the text highlighted in tan on page 254. Who is the person in the kitchen, and why is she referred to only as a “voice”? Answer:The housekeeper’s anonymity is emphasized by calling her a “voice.”

  19. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Activating Prior KnowledgeRead the text highlighted in blue on page 254.Where are the fathers? How do you know? Answer:The fathers are away at war. The background information and other details set the story late in World War II.

  20. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tone Read the text highlighted in purple on page 255. What is the author’s attitude toward the housekeeper? Answer:It is mainly an attitude of scorn. The housekeeper is concerned with making money and “buying he own freedom.” She recognizes the mother’s faults and seems to care little for the child’s feelings.Encourage students to support their interpretations with specific details.

  21. READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 255. How would you describe this woman’s attitude? What similarities or differences do you find with the attitude of the babysitter in the story? Answer:The woman is solitary and serious. Like the babysitter in the story, she is in a reflective mood. Unlike the babysitter, she seems lost in her own memories and unconcerned about anyone else

  22. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tone Read the text highlighted in purple on page 256. Why do you think the author chose to describe the babysitter in such great detail? Answer:Such a description clues the reader that this person is going to be important to the story. She will not be one of the “variable” babysitters.

  23. READING THE SELECTION Life Transitions Read the text highlighted in tan on page 256. How do you think this evening will be different for Felicia? Answer:Answers will vary. The woman might explain why she is sad and how a child figures into her story.

  24. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Activating Prior Knowledge Read the text highlighted in blue on page 257.From what you know about World War II, what do you think happened to the child? Answer:The child may have died in a concentration camp.

  25. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Activating Prior KnowledgeRead the text highlighted in blue on page 257. What parallels are drawn between Felicia and the little girl? Answer:Their hair, face, clothes, and ballet dancing are compared.

  26. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element ToneRead the text highlighted in purple on page 258.Why do you think the woman’s tone changes so abruptly? Answer:The milk reminds her of how deprived and hungry the child was. This memory makes her angry.

  27. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element ToneRead the text highlighted in purple on page 258. How does Boyle show that the babysitter still struggles with grief? Answer:She shows her withdrawing from Felicia, then returning to the present.

  28. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Activating Prior Knowledge Read the text highlighted in blue on page 258.Where were the mothers and children? Why were they there? Answer:The women and children were in a Nazi concentration camp and probably Jewish. They were most frequently put into death camps.

  29. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Activating Prior Knowledge Read the text highlighted in blue on page 258. How do you think the woman feels describing this experience? Answer:She wants to forget this period in her life, but she cannot.

  30. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Activating Prior KnowledgeRead the text highlighted in blue on page 259.What do you think happened to the little girl’s mother? Answer:She most likely died in an extermination camp.

  31. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Activating Prior KnowledgeRead the text highlighted in blue on page 259. Why doesn’t the sitter explain what happened to the little girl’s mother? Answer:She may realize that Felicia is too young to hear such things, or she may realize that the child may fear that her own mother will never come back.

  32. READING THE SELECTION Life Transitions Read the text highlighted in tan in page 259.How does Felicia relate the little girl’s story to her own life?

  33. READING THE SELECTION Answer:When the woman tells Felicia that the little girl’s mother went away, Felicia relates to her situation because her own mother is not home. Felicia assumes the little girl’s father was away fighting in the war, like her own father, when in reality the little girl’s father was probably a prisoner in another camp.

  34. READING THE SELECTION Life Transitions Read the text highlighted in tan on page 259. How is Felicia’s comment, “I know,” ironic? Answer:When Felicia says “I know,” she doesn’t really know.

  35. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tone Read the text highlighted in purple on page 260. How does the tone of the story change here? Answer:The words smiling, love, and contentment, as well as the dancing, create the liveliest, happiest tone in the story so far.

  36. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element ToneRead the text highlighted in purple on page 260. What accounts for the change in tone? Answer:Felicia and the sitter are responding to each other and enjoying their bond.

  37. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Activating Prior KnowledgeRead the text highlighted in purple on page 260.How is the woman unlike a typical babysitter? Answer:Most most caretakers would insist on basic hygiene or maintaining everyday rules.

  38. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Activating Prior Knowledge Read the text highlighted in blue on page 260. Why doesn’t the sitter require Felicia to wash and brush her teeth? Answer:Perhaps the woman wisely realizes that it would break the mood, or she wants to extend kindness to Felicia to compensate for the little girl’s suffering.

  39. READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 260. Why do you think the sitter would tell the little girl about the ballets? Answer:She probably wanted to get her mind off of her real life.

  40. READING THE SELECTION Life Transitions Read the text highlighted in tan on page 261. What is the new relationship between the woman and Felicia? Answer:Felicia has become “her little girl,” and the woman replaces Felicia’s mother—at least for the night. Both are content with this turn of events.

  41. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element ToneRead the text highlighted in purple on page 261. How does the tone change at the end of the story? Answer:The final image is peaceful, but there is also a sense of bitterness. Boyle uses the simile “as startling as a slap across her delicately tinted face” to show that the mother is shocked and upset by her discovery.

  42. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element ToneRead the text highlighted in purple on page 261.What can you infer about the author’s attitude toward the mother from the last sentence of the story? Answer:The author seems to disapprove of the mother’s neglect of her daughter. Felicia had to seek comfort with another sorrowful soul because her mother was unavailable to her.

  43. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond • Do you approve of the way in which Felicia’s mother is raising her daughter? Why or why not? Answer:You may say you don’t approve, but may note extenuating circumstances.

  44. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) Who takes care of Felicia when her mother is away? (b) How does Felicia feel about her mother’s frequent absences? Support your answer with evidence from the story. Answer:(a) Housekeepers and babysitters (b) She wishes her mother were home more.

  45. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) Describe the woman who comes to take care of Felicia for the evening. How is she different from the other sitting parents? (b) How does Felicia react to the woman? In your opinion, why does Felicia react this way?

  46. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer:(a) She has dark hair, sad eyes. She takes an interest in her. (b) Felicia likes the woman, she might be the first person who pays attention.

  47. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) Summarize what the woman tells Felicia about the camp and the little girl she met there. (b) Compare and contrast Felicia and the little girl. How are they alike? How are they different?

  48. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer:(a) There was little food or clothing and mothers were often taken away. The little girl liked ballet. (b) About same age, missed their mothers, and liked ballet. However, Felicia is safe and the other girl was a prisoner.