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Go to Honors US History 3 Handouts • Print out note sheet for Background of World War I • Follow the Powerpoint to complete note sheet
Next Unit - World War ISpecifically- America’s Involvement British troops on the front line, Somme area, 1916
So what can we conclude from the US pursuing and achieving several foreign policy goals in the early 20th century? • Expanded access to foreign markets in order to ensure the continued growth of the domestic economy • US builds a modern navy to protect interests abroad • US exercises its international power to ensure American dominance US HAS BEEN DRAWN DEEPER INTO WORLD AFFAIRS WITH PURSUIT OF IMPERIALISM BUT IS LEADING THEM TOWARDS A WAR THEY COULD NOT AVOID…
Section 1 – Long-Term Causes of World War I Long-term causes (the real causes) (M.A.I.N.)
M. Militarism Def: military forces (ex: army) are given a high profile by the government Why a cause? Development of the armed forces (military built up) to be used as a tool of diplomacy Need to protect your empire; military source of pride
Militarism Examples in Europe France and Germany – size of armies doubled (100 yrs) Britain and Germany – fierce competition for mastery of the seas Germany also drew up plans of action that involved attacking France ( Belgium) IF Russia attacked Germany The British ‘Dreadnought’ (effective battleship)
A. Alliance system Def: An agreement made between two or more countries to give each other help if it is needed (Allies) Treaty to support one another if attacked *These were important because they meant that some countries had NO option but to declare war if one of their allies declared war first Why cause? Tried to prevent war due to the pressures of 3 causes by maintaining a balance of power; ultimately caused an assassination to then become a world war v.
I. Imperialism Chapter 10 Review Def: When a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule Why a cause? Need to get raw materials/ new markets to make your country stronger; empire source of pride
Ex: The amount of lands ‘owned’ by Britain and France increased the rivalry with Germany who had entered the scramble to acquire colonies late and only had small areas of Africa
N. Nationalism Def: Being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one’s country Why a cause? National unity & interests more important than global cooperation (may be an ethnic group)
How Did It All Begin?The Bosnian Crisis • 1908 – Austria-Hungary annexed (took over) Bosnia [was just occupying it – treaty with 9 E. Nations] • Serbians (angered) felt province should be theirs – stirred up trouble for A-H. • Serbia threatened Austria-Hungary with war • Russia (allied with Serbia) mobilized forces • Germany (allied to Austria-Hungary) mobilized forces • Threatened war to Russia • Russia backed down Had lost a great amount of international prestige when it was defeated by Japan in the 1905 war in the Far East. - Russian Navy destroyed (was seen as a humiliating defeat.
The Bosnian Crisis con’t • Then 1911-1912 – War in the Balkan states (drove out Turkey [Ottoman Empire] out of area) • States fought over which area should belong to which state • Austria-Hungary intervened – forced Serbia to give up land TENSIONS HIGH BETWEEN THE TWO
THEN THE SPARK IN 1914
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne by Gavrilo Princip, a Slavic nationalist and member of the Black Hand (secret society) , in Sarajevo, Bosnia (June 28th) If need to review of story (click below) assassination_franz_ferdinand handout.doc
Austria-Hungary’s Reaction to death of their heir… • Took 3 weeks! *Austria-Hungary linked the Serbia gov’t with the Black Hand Society Decided to take this opportunity to stamp out Serbia authority over the Serbians, crush the nationalist movement, and cement Austria-Hungary’s position in the Balkans • Demanded in an Ultimatum • Hand over the Assassins for justice (decreasing Serbia’s sovereigntydef: having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory; power to rule and make laws) • But Austria-Hungary expected Serbia to reject ultimatum and then they would launch a limited war against Serbia.
But Serbia had “an ace in their back pocket” Russia • Serbia had ties with • So, Austria-Hungary contacted their “ace” • Didn’t think Russia would want to be drawn in…BUT just in case, Austria-Hungary wanted assurances that Germany would come to its aid IF Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary • Germany agreed and actually boosted Austria-Hungary’s warlike ego Germany
Lead to WW I? (alliance system – the “chain reaction”) (1). Austria Hungary blames Serbia for murder of Archduke (2). With pledge of support from Germany (beginnings of the Triple Alliance), Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia (July 28th) (3). Russia mobilizes army to help its ally Serbia (July 29th) (4). Germany views this as a threat; declares war on Russia (August 1st)
(5). Germany’s Schlieffen Plan for fighting a two fronted war: knock France out quickly & then concentrate forces on the eastern front against Russia (6). Germany declares war on Russia’s ally, France (August 3rd); to get to France Germany invades neutral Belgium (August 4th) (7). Great Britain declares war on Germany because of treaties with Belgium & France & Russia (Triple Entente) (8). Great War begins
Use remaining time to work on Wix.com webpage • Go to Honors US History 3 Assignments Hollywood and History link to find: • Checklist of Webpage Requirements • NO WRITTEN PAPER – EVERYTHING ON WEBPAGE • Don’t forget the Bibliography section • Mrs. Perella’s Example of Cold Mountain Due Date: Thursday
In terms of your Test #2 (Imperialism) • Finish essay in class • 3rd – Thursday • 7th - Wednesday