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Ironmaking in the Blast Furnace Plant. Bell Less Top. Sinter. Coke. Gas Cleaning. Hot Blast Stoves. Stock House. Gasholder. Scrubber. Enrichment Gas. Slag, Hot Metal. Combustion Air. Blower. Combustion Gas. Blast Furnace. Top Gas Mains. Top Bins. Throat Armour. Above Burden Probe.

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Ironmaking in the Blast Furnace Plant

Bell Less Top



Gas Cleaning

Hot Blast Stoves

Stock House



Enrichment Gas

Slag, Hot Metal

Combustion Air


Combustion Gas


Blast Furnace

Top Gas Mains

Top Bins

Throat Armour

Above Burden Probe

Temperature Probe

Refractory Lining

Sub Burden Probe

Bustle Main


Hearth Refractories

hot blast stove
Hot Blast Stove

Combustion Chamber



Coking Coal and iron ore are the basic raw materials for the production of pig iron, which will further be refined to steel in the steel works.

In the coke oven plant coal is processed to coke. Coke is essential in the lower part of the blast furnace to maintain the gas permeability. Due to the high weight load of the burden column simple coal would break into small particles and block the gas stream. As a byproduct of the coking process coke oven gas mainly consisting of hydrogen and methane is generated, which is used mainly for generation of electric power in a thermal power plant.

Most of the iron ores and additves are traded as fines and need some pretreatment before being processed in the blast furnace.

This preprocess is called sintering, where, by means of heat (approx. 1300°C) the fines are somehow baked to particles of between 20 and 50 mm mean diameter. These particles, called sinter, are also permeable for the reduction gases.

In the blast furnace the reduction of the iron ores (Fe2O3) to metallic iron and the melting of the iron and by products take place. Both, reduction and melting need high temperature, which is generated by combustion of coke using hot blast, blown in via tuyeres located around the furnace.

The reduction gas leaving the furnace is called top gas and after a cleaning process used to preheat the air in the hot blast stoves.

Hot metal and slag are further tapped from the hearth of the blast furnace, by drilling a so called tap hole, which will be closed after aproximately one to one and a half hours again.

The separation of hot metal and slag takes place in a so called pool runner outside the furnace, using the density difference.

Iron Production