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Programmes Environment for the Wireless Applications Development. Ass.prof. Miroslav Galabov, PhD St.Cyril and St.Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria. 1.Overview of m-Business and the Wireless Internet.
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Programmes Environment for the Wireless Applications Development Ass.prof. Miroslav Galabov, PhD St.Cyril and St.Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria
1.Overview of m-Business and the Wireless Internet • Wireless technology brings communication, Internet and World Wide Web to users around the world • Consumers and businesses will be able to conduct all information transactions from mobile devices • Applications • Businesses: transmitting critical information • Schools: improved connectivity • Consumers: purchasing products when away from home
1.Overview of m-Business and the Wireless Internet • Location-identification • location-identification capabilities built into all cell phones • TDOA (time difference of arrival), AOA (Angle of Arrival) and GPS • Benefits • Enhances lives of disabled (Digital Angel) • Improves B2C and B2B applications • Provides focused marketing and store/restaurant location
1.Overview of m-Business and the Wireless Internet • E-payments • M-wallets: store billing information • Bluetooth wireless technology and infrared: transactions occur via wireless devices • Concerns • Continuous marketing: privacy issues • Accumulated personal information • WTLS (Wireless Transport Layer Security) protocol protects wireless information, but not once decrypted at destination
1.Overview of m-Business and the Wireless Internet • Small text-based interfaces • Technologies • First-generation: analog cell phones • Second-generation: digital transmissions on circuit-switched networks • GSM, CDMA, TDMA and OFDM (Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing) • 2.5 generation: between 2G and 3G • packet-switching
1.Overview of m-Business and the Wireless Internet • Third-generation (3G): streaming audio,video, multimedia and voice transmissions • W-CDMA(Wideband Code Division Multiple Access ), GPRS, EDGE and CDMA2000 • NTT DoCoMo (JAPAN): leads world in 3G development (W-CDMA) • Standardization • Variety of transmission protocols • Languages • HDML(Handheld Device Markup Language), WAP/WML and J2ME (Java 2 Micro Edition ) • BREW: enables developers to write applications for devices on disparate platforms
2.1 Introduction to m-business • M-business An e-business enabled by wireless communications
2.2 Adopting Wireless Technologies • Disadvantages of wireless technology (phones) • Screen size and resolution • Entering information • Incompatible web sites • Phone billing • New technologies • Web Clipping, WAP, WML, J2ME etc…
2.3 Creating m-Businesses • Creating a business plan Fig. 2.1 Steps to determine the need for wireless access.
2.3.1 Generating Revenue • Factors determining revenue • Consumer spending • Advertising • Cost of production • Wireless reliability
2.3.2 Wireless Web-Site Design and Content Creation • Transcoding • Converting HTML to WML • Customizing Content • Writing code for wireless access by variety of devices and standards The example: E*Trade (the global leader of online trading) on Palm • Portfolio management, market activity, help index • No multimedia or interactive features
2.3.2 Wireless Web-Site Design and Content Creation E*Trade on desktop • Many more services offered • Multimedia and interactive features • Value Added Services: links to additional services
2.3.2 Wireless Web-Site Design and Content Creation • Functionality and reliability over aesthetics and features E*Trade on the wireless Palm device and on Microsoft IE
2.3.3 Business-to-Employee (B2E) Communications • Wireless internet • Increases productivity • Reduces expenses • B2E considerations • Changing old procedures and protocols • Implementing security and encryption • New drive/standard-specific protocols
2.4 Wireless Application Solution Providers • Choosing a wireless device • Cost • Storage • Compatibility with existing systems • Wireless solution providers for demands of changing technologies • End-to-end services • Packaged software • iConverse • iConverse Mobility Platform: helps enterprise manage data and speech applications for all devices
2.4 Wireless Application Solution Providers iConverse is a wireless applications solution provider.
2.5 Business-to-Employee (B2E) Applications • PocketCashier: service and sales from remote locations using phones or PDAs • Transportation and shipping industry web-sites enhance services • DHL, Fedex • Trucking Industry • Load matching: match truck capacity with shipping needs • Cargonet.com, Cargonow.com
2.5 Business-to-Employee (B2E) Applications • Applications in other industries • Factory Management: wireless chips for production, monitoring, and safety • Education: e-learning reduces time and travel Smartforce - leading provider of e-learning and performance support solutions for global enterprises, government, education and small to medium-sized businesses.
2.6 Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Applications • Mobile devices • News, scores, e-mail • Micropayments: small transactions • Accenture’s Mobile Micropayments
3.1 International Wireless Communications. Introduction • International wireless communication technologies drive the global economy • US’ wireless penetration (% using service) lags behind other countries • Companies investing in wireless infrastructure, creating wireless-accessible content and developing wireless applications
3.2.1 Asia and the Pacific • Asia has a highly advanced wireless market • Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan all have high market penetrations • China has low market penetration despite 46.5 million subscribers • India has large potential market
3.2.2 Europe • The European wireless market • Sweden, Italy, and Portugal have highest penetration • Italy, UK, and Germany have most subscribers • Ericsson (Sweden) • 30% world’s wireless market • 50% 3G contracts
3.2.3 North, Central and South America • Brazil, Mexico, Canada, and Argentina have relatively high cell phone markets • South America is attractive market for foreign investment • Central America still slow to embrace technology
3.2.5 Africa • African developments in wireless infrastructures attracts foreign investors • South Africa and Morocco are the leaders and have offered 3G licenses • South Africa is one of the most mature wireless markets and one of the top 20 in the world with approximately 5.3 million cell-phone subscribers.
4.1 Wireless Communications Technologies.Introduction. • Millions of people worldwide use wireless services and devices • Wireless communications • Hardware • Wireless carriers • Networks • Radio Frequency, Laser, Infrared and Bluetooth Wireless Technology • Satellites
4.2 Hardware • Mobile phones, PDAs and laptop computers allow wireless access to the Internet from remote locations • Outside US, mobile phones are preferred medium for information and e-business transactions
4.3 Wireless Carriers • Wireless Carriers: companies providing wireless Internet access to mobile devices • Services • Pricing • Network coverage
4.4 Wireless Networks • Corporations, businesses and colleges building wireless networks allowing information access anytime from anywhere • Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) • Use wires and cables to connect users to central server • Many companies and residences turning to wireless solutions for area networks
4.4 Wireless Networks • Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs) and Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) • Transmit data through air
4.5 Radio Frequency, Laser, Infrared and Bluetooth Wireless Technology • Technologies allowing sharing among wireless devices • Radio frequency • Infrared • Laser • Bluetooth
4.5.1 Radio Frequency (RF) • Radio Frequency(RF): communications through radio signals • Phones, broadcasts and networks • Radio Frequency WLAN: networks devices not close together
4.5.1 Radio Frequency (RF) • RF WLAN standards • HomeRF • In home and small offices • Data and voice products networking between printers, PCs, and phones • Uses Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP), FHSS technology • Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) • 802.11b standard • Airports, restaurants and other areas • High power consumption and low reliability in high traffic
4.5.1 Radio Frequency (RF) HomeRF (HomeRF Working Group, Inc. (www.homerf.com))
4.5.2 Laser and Infrared Technology • Laser technology: connects buildings • Transceivers (towers) on rooftops communicate through signal and link networks • Infrared technology: - connects devices up to 30 feet and needs clear line of sight • More cost-efficient than laser techn. • slow speeds
4.5.3 Bluetooth • Bluetooth: radio frequencies • 2000 companies involved in Bluetooth Consortium • Point-to-multipoint and FHSS packet-switching • Can connect multiple devices within a 30 foot radius • Interference problems: on 2.4GHz band with most other WLAN devices • Bluetooth allows automatic communication as soon as devices enter coverage area
4.6 Satellite Communications • Satellite communications is alternative for wireless networks • Satellite system types • Low Earth Orbit Satellites (LEOs) • 100-300 miles above surface: transmit signals quickly • Hundreds placed in ring following earth’s curvature: communicate with each other until in range of destination user • Medium Earth Orbit Satellites (MEOs) • 6,000 to 12,000 miles above surface • Require fewer satellite than LEOs • Used by government and for weather
4.6 Satellite Communications • Satellite system types (cont’d) • Geostationary Orbit Satellites • 22,282 miles above surface • Replaced less often • More transmission delays and distortions • Satellites provide voice, data, and location-based services • Iridium • Motorola satellite network for voice, data, fax and location • Used 66 LEO satellites, bankrupt in 1999 and bought in 2001 by Iridium Satellite
4.7 Future of Wireless Communication • Wireless service moving toward 3G technologies • Battle over technologies and standards • Provider globalization • Network upgrades to 3G
5.1 Wireless Platforms & Programming Languages • No unifying standard • Protocols, platforms and languages are important developmental/implementation tools
5.1.1 Handheld Devices Markup Language (HDML) • Handheld Devices Markup Language (HDML) • One of first languages for handheld devices • Similar to HTML • Evolved into WAP and WML • HDML no longer manufactured, but still present in many devices
5.1.2 WAP and WML • Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) • Set of protocols enabling communication between different wireless devices • Intended for phones, pagers and other handhelds
5.1.2 WAP and WML • Wireless Markup Language (WML) • Creates web content for wireless devices, based on XML • Microbrowsers: access web via wireless internet • WML supports WAP • Deck: a WML document made up of cards • Image support and telephone support through telephony tags
5.1.2 WAP and WML • WAP limitations • Security breaches and unreliability • Limited bandwidth • Can’t handle multimedia and overloaded easily • WAP communications • WAP-enabled mobile device • WAP gateway • Web server WAP Communications Architecture
WAP WAP 1.2.1 GPRS, WAP Push WAP 2.0 WAP CSS / XHTML MP WAP 1.0 WML 1.X / WML Script XHTML Basic WAP CSS / XHTML MP 5.1.2 WAP and WML Growth of WAP, as the platform for development of wireless web applications • WAP 1.0 • Black and white screen • Slowly load of documents /10-15s/ • Price– depending on the time ofview • WAP 2.0 • Growth graphics, colors • Contents tune in • Local cash • Security server access • Compatibility withWAP 1.0 / WML
5.1.2 WAP and WML WAP 1.0 WML / WML Script • WML – The first language, speciallyforWAP • Support the basic functions- presenting of text and images • Limiting possibility for presentations • Integration of presentation in contents • Organize the contents in carts and decks=> Pages visualization only trough WAP-browser • Support scripting of the client-WML Script
5.1.2 WAP and WML WAP 2.0 XHTML MP / WAP CSS • XHTML MP – The officialmark-up languageof modern WAP-pages • Wide spectra of functional possibility – growth graphics • Widevaried on instruments for control of contentsmode – WAPCSS • Contents and presentation division –external CSS-files /WAP CSS/ • Using well knowing recourses for development of web-pages => Pages visualization troughWEB- andWAP-browsers. • In the future will support the client scripting=> ECMA Script Mobile Profile
5.1.2 WAP and WML Structure of the information site for mobile phones
5.1.2 WAP and WML Visualization withWAP Proof 2008
5.1.2 WAP and WML Weather forecast
5.1.3 Compact HTML (cHTML) & i-mode • i-mode: popular service in Japan for voice, text, graphics and web-browsing • Uses cHTML, subset of HTML • NTT DoCoMo has over 30,000 cHTML pages on own servers – eliminates translation