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Computer Organization and Logic design COS3602
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  1. Computer Organization and Logic designCOS3602

  2. Architecture & Organization 1 • Architecture is those attributes visible to the programmer • Instruction set, number of bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms, addressing techniques. • e.g. Is there a multiply instruction? • Organization is how features are implemented • Control signals, interfaces, memory technology. • e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition?

  3. Structure & Function • Structure is the way in which components relate to each other • Function is the operation of individual components as part of the structure

  4. Function • All computer functions are: • Data processing • Data storage • Data movement • Control

  5. Data Storage Facility Data Movement Apparatus Control Mechanism Data Processing Facility Functional view • Functional view of a computer

  6. Data Storage Facility Data Movement Apparatus Control Mechanism Data Processing Facility Operations (1) • Data movement • e.g. keyboard to screen

  7. Data Storage Facility Data Movement Apparatus Control Mechanism Data Processing Facility Operations (2) • Storage • e.g. Internet download to disk

  8. Data Storage Facility Data Movement Apparatus Control Mechanism Data Processing Facility Operation (3) • Processing from/to storage • e.g. updating bank statement

  9. Data Storage Facility Data Movement Apparatus Control Mechanism Data Processing Facility Operation (4) • Processing from storage to I/O • e.g. printing a bank statement

  10. Structure - Top Level Computer Peripherals Central Processing Unit Main Memory Computer Systems Interconnection Input Output Communication lines

  11. Structure - The CPU CPU Arithmetic and Login Unit Computer Registers I/O System Bus CPU Internal CPU Interconnection Memory Control Unit

  12. Structure - The Control Unit Control Unit CPU Sequencing Login ALU Control Unit Internal Bus Control Unit Registers and Decoders Registers Control Memory

  13. Computer Architecture is the design of computer , including their instruction sets, hardware components, and system organization. The computer architecture consists of two parts; • Instruction set architecture (ISA) • Hardware system architecture (HAS)

  14. The instruction set architecture : เป็นการแสดงรายละเอียด Software/Hardware ที่ใช้ในการเชื่อมต่อที่อยู่ในระดับภาษาเครื่องที่โปรแกรมเมอร์มองเห็นได้ รวมถึง • The instruction set • The instruction formats • The available addressing techniques • The format of the available data types • The Operational register set and usage

  15. The hardware system architecture : บางครั้งก็อ้างถึงโครงสร้างทางคอมพิวเตอร์ เป็นแนวคิดถึงฮาร์ดแวร์หลักของคอมพิวเตอร์รวมถึง CPU , Memory , และ I/O devices ส่วนของ Hardware system architecture รวมทั้ง logical design และ data flow organization ของระบบย่อยฮาร์ดแวร์ต่างๆและประสิทธิภาพการทำงานของระบบคอมพิวเตอร์ เราจะพิจารณาดังนี้ • เทคโนโลยี • ความเร็ว • ราคา ฯลฯ

  16. Computational Models • Two primary computational models • Von Neumann Model • System Bus Model • The Von Neumann Model consists of five major subsystems (input, output, control, arithmetic, memory) • The System Bus Model streamlines this into three subsystems (CPU, memory, IO)

  17. Von Neumann Model Memory Unit Control Path Data Path Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Input Unit Output Unit Control Unit

  18. System Bus Model CPU (ALU, Registers, and Control) Memory Input and Output Data Bus Address Bus Control Bus

  19. Computational Models • Consider the implications of these alternative designs • Design 1: Central processor with special cabling to specialized devices • Design 2: Multi-bus with common parsing of data and control packets for device-ids

  20. Introduction to Computer Architecture • History • Computational Models • >> Levels of the Machine • Computer System Metaphor

  21. Levels of the Machine • 1. Individual electrical components • Transistors • Resisters • Capacitors • 2. Circuit boards • 3. Specialized devices • Power supply • Cooling fan

  22. Levels of the Machine • 4. Specialized components • Graphics accelerator • Memory banks • 5. Mother board • CPU • Battery • Plug-in expansion card slots • Specialized components • Connector for power supply

  23. Levels of the Machine • 6. Operating system and device drivers • 7. Machine language • 8. Compilers and interpreters • 9. High-level languages • Java • C++ • Visual Basic • Microsoft Excel (?)

  24. Levels of the Machine • 10. Single-user applications • 11. Network components and software • 12. Multi-user centralized applications • 13. Internet connection devices and s/w • 14. Internet utilities (global / specific) • 15. Web connection devices and s/w • 16. Web utilities (global / general)

  25. Introduction to Computer Architecture • History • Computational Models • Levels of the Machine • >> Computer System

  26. Typical Computer System • Hard Disk • Floppy Disk • Tape Backup • Random Access Memory • Central Processing Unit • Graphics Accelerator Card • Keyboard • Monitor • Printer

  27. Computer System The intent of the following slides is to remind us to ask, when studying any computer component, “What problem is this intended to solve?”

  28. Digital Computers • Computer Structure Figure 1-2: Block Diagram of a Digital Computer

  29. Digital Computers • Basic Structure • memory unit: stores programs, input, output, data • processor unit: performs arithmetic and other data-processing operations, as specified by the program • control unit: supervises the flow of information between units (CPU = control unit + data path) • input device: key board • output device: CRT, LCD • More • FPU (floating-point unit) • MMU (memory management unit) (Memory: MMU + internal cache + external cache + RAM)

  30. Classification of Computer Architectures

  31. Von Neumann Machine ระบบคอมพิวเตอร์ที่สร้างขึ้นมาโดยใช้พื้นฐานการพัฒนามาจาก John von nuemenn ผู้ที่ออกแบบระบบคอมพิวเตอร์ IAS ( Institute for Advanced Studies) คอมพิวเตอร์ ที่ Princeton University in the 1940’s

  32. Von Neumann Machine • สถาปัตยกรรมของ Von nuemann มีคุณสมบัติดังนี้ • มีระบบฮาร์ดแวร์พื้นฐาน 3 ชนิดคือ • CPU • Main memory • I/O system • โปรแกรมและข้อมูลจะจัดเก็บไว้ในหน่วยความจำ

  33. โปรแกรมและข้อมูลจะจัดเก็บไว้ในหน่วยความจำ หมายความว่าชุดคำสั่งที่ใช้ในการจัดการข้อมูลจะอยู่ในหน่วยความจำเดียวกัน • ชุดคำสั่งที่ใช้เอ็กซีคิวส์จะทำงานเรียงตามลำดับ ยกเว้นคำสั่งข้ามการทำงาน • จะมีทางผ่านข้อมูลทางเดียวระหว่างหน่วยความจำกับหน่วยควบคุมของ CPU จะทำให้ประสิทธิภาพการทำงานเป็นแบบ Bottleneck

  34. The major subsystems within the CPU are: • The control unit (CU) • The arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) • A register set

  35. Von Neumann Model Memory Unit • Input Unit • Provides instructions and data to system Input Unit Arithemtic and Logical Unit (ALU) Output Unit Control Unit

  36. Von Neumann Model Memory Unit • Output Unit • Returns data from system Input Unit Arithemtic and Logical Unit (ALU) Output Unit Control Unit

  37. Von Neumann Model Memory Unit • Memory • Storage for instructions and data Input Unit Arithemtic and Logical Unit (ALU) Output Unit Control Unit

  38. Von Neumann Model Memory Unit • ALU • Processes data Input Unit Arithemtic and Logical Unit (ALU) Output Unit Control Unit

  39. Von Neumann Model Memory Unit • Control Unit • Directs processing Input Unit Arithemtic and Logical Unit (ALU) Output Unit Control Unit

  40. Von Neumann Model Memory Unit • CPU • ALU and Control Unit combined CPU Input Unit Arithemtic and Logical Unit (ALU) Output Unit Control Unit

  41. System Bus Model • Streamlined version of von Nuemann model • Data Bus • Address Bus • Control Bus • Power Bus (optional) CPU (ALU, Registers, & Control) Memory Input & Output (I/O) Data Bus Address Bus System Bus Control Bus

  42. System Bus Model • Data Bus • Carries the information being transmitted • Sometimes implemented as data-in and data-out buses CPU (ALU, Registers, & Control) Memory Input & Output (I/O) Data Bus Address Bus System Bus Control Bus

  43. System Bus Model • Address Bus • Identifies where the information is being sent • “Memory” address identifies read/write location CPU (ALU, Registers, & Control) Memory Input & Output (I/O) Data Bus Address Bus System Bus Control Bus

  44. System Bus Model • Control Bus • Describes aspects of how the information is being sent, & in what manner CPU (ALU, Registers, & Control) Memory Input & Output (I/O) Data Bus Address Bus System Bus Control Bus