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Research-Based Behavioral Interventions presented by. Cayce McCamish, Regional PBIS Coordinator Dana Rusher, Regional Behavior Consultant Evidence-Based Interventions Manual. East Carolina University (Fall 2007) T. Chris Riley-Tillman

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research based behavioral interventions presented by

Research-BasedBehavioral Interventionspresented by

Cayce McCamish, Regional PBIS Coordinator

Dana Rusher, Regional Behavior Consultant

evidence based interventions manual
Evidence-Based Interventions Manual

East Carolina University (Fall 2007)

  • T. Chris Riley-Tillman
  • Christy Walcott
  • Holly Beamon
  • Jacqueline Carrigg
  • Brynn Grech
  • Summer Ricketts
  • Anastasia Scheemaker
  • Kathryn Weegar
today we will discuss
Today we will discuss:
  • The definition of research-based interventions and where to find them
  • The importance of understanding the function of a student’s challenging behavior
  • 5 common reasons for behavioral challenges
  • How to choose an intervention that will successfully link to:
    • the function of a student’s challenging behavior
    • the reason for a student’s challenging behavior
tertiary prevention intervention
Tertiary Prevention & Intervention
  • Individualized, intensive services
  • Designed to meet individual student needs
  • Focus on teaching replacement behavior
  • Accomplished through individual data collection, FBA, BIP
secondary prevention
Secondary Prevention
  • Small group social skills instruction & support
  • Mentoring
  • More structured support for academic and behavior success
  • Instruction in monitoring and re-directing own behavior

School Improvement

Whole School













Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Tutoring
  • Academic Remediation Plans
  • Specially Designed Instruction

Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Functional Behavior Assessment & Behavior Intervention Planning




Struggling Students







Targeted Group Interventions

  • Small group instruction
  • Focused academic help


Targeted Group Interventions

  • Social Skills instruction
  • Reinforcement of specific skills
  • Group Behavioral Strategies
  • Classroom Coaching


ation for




Group Strategies







Positive School






Mental Health




Universal Interventions

  • Effective instructional


  • Recognition of academic


  • Culturally responsive practices
  • Data-based decision-making
  • Parent & Community Partnerships

Universal Interventions

  • School-wide rules and


  • Systematic reinforcement
  • Social Skills Instruction
  • Culturally responsive practices
  • Data-based decision-making
  • Parent & Community Partnerships

Effective Staff



Health Services






Academic Instruction

Data Based




Screening and


Classroom Coaching

and Consultation

Parent and



what does research based mean
What does “Research Based” mean?
  • Scientifically-based Research (from RtI Manual Glossary)
  • Education related research that meets the following criteria:
    • Analyzes and presents the impact of effective teaching on achievement of students
    • Includes large numbers of students in the study
    • Includes study and control groups
    • Applies a rigorous peer review process
    • Includes replication studies to validate results
where do you find research based interventions
Where do you find research based interventions?
  • Scholarly journals
  • Internet resources
  • Books
    • Key features to look for:
        • Usually challenging to read (sometimes boring)
        • Often filled with jargon (technical terminology)
        • Must have results of some form of data analysis
        • Typically look for repeated analysis
        • Pick “big name” journals representing large fields (ex. School Psych. Quarterly, Exceptional Children & Behavioral Disorders)
selecting interventions

Selecting Interventions

How do we know what to do when a student is experiencing social behavior failure?

the basics
The Basics
  • Behavior is purposeful
  • Behavior is learned
  • Behavior is predictable
  • Behavior is interactive
  • Behavior CAN be taught!
Function …
  • People behave for a reason - we call this “function”
  • Function:
    • Does he/she get something?
      • Tangibles, attention, stimulation, people, etc.
    • Does he/she avoid or escape something?
      • People, activities, embarrassment, tasks, etc.
only 2 basic functions
Only 2 Basic Functions

Pos Reinf

Neg Reinf

Existing aversive condition identified

why look at the function
Why look at the function?
  • Behavior communicates need
  • Need is determined by observing what happens prior to and immediately after behavior
abc analysis
ABC Analysis
  • Antecedent:
    • What happens immediately before a behavior or the environmental context of the behavior?
  • Behavior:
    • The actions of the student
  • Consequence:
    • What happens immediately after the behavior?
Remember …
  • It is not possible to determine function of a student’s challenging behavior simply by describing the behavior
  • It is necessary to understand antecedent/context and consequences
  • It is probably more efficient for the student to engage in the problem behavior
choosing an intervention
Choosing an Intervention
  • Connect the FUNCTION with the intervention
  • Ask: Will this intervention meet the functional need?
  • Ex. If the function of the behavior is to access adult attention:
      • Intervention should prevent access to adult attention for inappropriate behaviors.
      • Intervention should provide access to adult attention for appropriate behaviors.
function of challenging behavior versus reasons for challenging behavior
Functionof challenging behavior versusReasonsfor challenging behavior
  • Function = why the student is engaging in the behavior
  • Reasons = antecedents, context, triggers, precipitating factors
5 common reasons students misbehave
5 common REASONS students misbehave
  • Doesn’t know the right skill
  • Appropriate behavior is ignored
  • Inappropriate behavior gets attention
  • Doesn’t have to do something when the problem behavior is present
  • Requested activity is too hard (or punishing)
the student has not learned a more appropriate behavior that provides the same consequence
The student has not learned a more appropriate behavior that provides the same consequence.
  • It is often assumed that at some level, student “knows” how to behave but simply chooses to misbehave. This assumption must be tested!
  • Solution: Teach the appropriate behavior
  • Interventions:
    • Help Signal
    • Direct Instruction
help signal
Help Signal
  • Student selects a signal
  • Have alternate work folder available to engage student while waiting for response
  • Meet with student/group to explain signal and usage
  • Practice, answer questions
  • Prompt as necessary
direct instruction
Direct Instruction
  • Define skill with guided discussion
  • Model correct application
  • Model incorrect application
  • Review
  • Model 2nd example
  • Model a range of examples (hypothetical)
  • Model (if needed)
  • Role play
  • Gain agreement of student to try the skill
more appropriate behaviors are ignored
More appropriate behaviors are ignored.
  • Ignored behaviors will cease over time
  • Solution: Systematically reward appropriate behavior
  • Interventions:
    • Catch’em
    • Random Positive Teacher Attention
catch em
Catch ‘em
  • Establish a list of good behaviors
  • Model/review good behaviors to be rewarded
  • Select daily behavior to emphasize and reward each student as desired
  • Create specific goals for students with problem behaviors
  • Provide tokens that are redeemable for rewards
  • Allow students to redeem tokens during specified time
random positive teacher attention
Random Positive Teacher Attention
  • Select method of positive attention
  • Set frequency of positive attention per class
  • Select time and settings to give attention
  • Begin intervention
the student gets reinforced for exhibiting the problem behavior
The student gets reinforced for exhibiting the problem behavior.
  • This is always the case. The problem behavior is “working” for the child in some manner.
  • Solution: Minimize reinforcement for problematic behavior while reinforcing appropriate behavior
  • Interventions:
    • “Critters”
    • Red Light- Green Light
  • Define expectations
  • Decide on privileges
  • Introduce critter slips
  • Daily, select behavioral expectation from list
  • During specified time interval hand out slips
  • Reward behavior each time it is seen during specific time interval
  • Allow students to redeem slips
red light green light
Red light/Green light
  • Select time of day for implementation
  • Post classroom rules and explain
  • Explain you will be observing and rating students using stoplight
  • Rate behavior every 20 – 30 minutes or at the end of an activity
  • Explain rating to class
  • If class is on green at end of rating period, reward
the student doesn t have to do something when they exhibit the problem behavior
The student doesn’t have to do something when they exhibit the problem behavior.
  • Often called an escape behavior
    • A student misbehaves so they don’t have to do (or escapes from) some task demand (academic activity)
  • Solution: Remove the “escape” and increase the reinforcing value of the task demand
  • Interventions:
    • Choice Making
    • Modified Curriculum or Instruction
choice making
Choice Making
  • Explain choices students have during frustrated situations
    • Complete portion of task
    • Request a break
    • Engage in problem behavior
  • Student selects and rates rewards from teacher-approved list
  • Differential Reinforcement
  • Reward student for gradually spending more time at the undesirable task
modified curriculum or instruction
Modified Curriculum or Instruction
  • Adjust specific content of lessons to match student interest, OR
  • Modify task demands to increase student’s ability to successfully complete assignment
requested activity is too hard
Requested activity is too hard
  • Often an academic request that is to hard will lead to a behavior problem.
  • Solution: Lower the task difficulty
    • Consider the instructional hierarchy
      • Acquisition level – Frustration
        • Under 85% correct response and slow
      • Instructional level
        • Under 95% correct response and fast
      • Mastery level – Automatic
        • Over 95% correct response and VERY FAST
  • Interventions:
    • Say, Show, Check
    • Paired Reading
paired reading
Paired Reading
  • Students sits in quiet location
  • Both students should be able to follow the text selected for the reading session
  • The less accomplished reader reads aloud
  • If a word is mispronounced the accomplished reader points to the word and pronounces it
  • The less accomplished reader repeats the word
where to find more interventions
Where to find more interventions?
  • In the classroom (Riley-Tillman and Chafouleas, 2003)
    • Certain treatments are more effective
    • Certain treatments are more relevant
    • Treatment integrity is key
    • Interventions need to be tailored
    • Interventions are more variable that effective
  • Texts such a Rathvon’s Effective School


where to more find interventions wright 2007
Where to More Find Interventions (Wright 2007)
  • Web resources for evidence-based intervention strategies
    • Big Ideas in Beginning Reading (U of Oregon):
    • What Works Clearinghouse (US Dept of Education):
    • Intervention Central:
    • Aimsweb

All who have meditated on the art of governing mankind have been convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth.