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We are cooling?

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  1. We are cooling? Dr. Don Easterbrook’s view on climate cycles Presented by: Melissah Ball

  2. Books Easterbrook, D. J., 1999 Surface processes and landforms: Prentice Hall Publishing Co., 546 p. Easterbrook, D. J., 1999, Interpretation of landforms from topographic maps and air photos: Prentice Hall Publishing Co., 193 p. Easterbrook, D. J., 1993, Surface processes and landforms: Macmillan Publishing Co., 520 p. Easterbrook, D. J., 1993, Interpretation of landforms from topographic maps and air photos: Western Washington University Press, 185 p. Easterbrook, D. J., 1982, Potential geologic natural landmarks, Cascade Range, Washington: Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, Dept. of Interior, Wash. D. C., 277 p. Easterbrook, D. J., 1971, Geology and geomorphology of western Whatcom County, Washington: Western Washington State College Press, 68 p. Easterbrook, D. J., and Rahm, D. A., 1970, Landforms of Washington: Union Printing Co., 156 p. Easterbrook, D. J., 1969, Principles of Geomorphology: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 462 p.

  3. "Legitimate scientists do not doctor data, delete data they don't like, hide data they don't want seen, hijack the peer review process, personally attack other scientists whose views differ from theirs, send fraudulent data to the IPCC that is used to perpetuate the greatest hoax in the history of science, provide false data to further legislation on climate change that will result in huge profits for corrupt lobbyists and politicians, and tell outright lies about scientific data.“ -Dr. Don Easterbrook

  4. How do we know if we’re warming or cooling?

  5. “One of the best ways to predict what climate changes lie ahead is to look for patterns of past climate changes.” The graph shows temperature variations determined from oxygen isotope analyses from the Greenland GISP ice core

  6. The Younger Dryas Cold Period

  7. The 8200 Year Cooling

  8. The Medieval Warm Period

  9. Today’s Temperatures

  10. Causes of climate change

  11. Solar Variations: The Maunder Minimum

  12. Global cooling occurs during times of few sunspots and low solar irradiance

  13. Solar irradiance and global warmingand cooling from 1750 to 1990.

  14. Sun spot cycles during the Dalton Minimum (1790-~1825). As we approach the predicted solar minima, the sun is behaving in a manner not seen since the Little Ice Age Dalton Minimum (1790 to ~1825). The change from sun spot cycle 23 to cycle 24 was expected in 2007 and the number of days with no sun spots has exceeded all but one record back to the Dalton Minimum. Cycle 23 now resembles cycle 4, which preceded the Dalton Minimum. The transition from cycle 23 to cycle 24 now appears to be headed lower than the Dalton Minimum

  15. Association of solar variations and climatic cooling

  16. Oceanic Processes: Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)

  17. Glacier advances and retreats are driven by climate changes, which are driven by changes in PDO

  18. “Great Pacific Climate Shift” There is a direct correlation between PDO mode and global temperature *It is important to point out that the PDO itself is not an index of temperature; it is an index of radiative forcing which drives the time rate of change of temperature.

  19. Satellite image of ocean temperature, 1999, showing the development of a strong cool PDO in the eastern Pacific that marked the end of ‘global warming’ and the beginning of the present cool cycle. (NASA image) Satellite image of ocean temperature, 1997, showing strong warm PDO in the eastern Pacific. The deep red band at the equator is a strong El Nino that made 1997-98 particularly warm. (NASA image)

  20. ‘Global warming’ is over. No warming above the level temperatures in 1998 has occurred and global cooling has deepened since 2005

  21. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation(AMO) The Atlantic Ocean also has multidecadal warm and cool modes with periods of about 30 years, much like the PDO. During warm phases, the Atlantic is warm in the tropical North Atlantic and far North Atlantic and relatively cool in the central area. During cool phases, the tropical area and far North Atlantic are cool and the central ocean is warm. The AMO is the average anomaly from 0 to 70N.

  22. Predictions

  23. The PDO has a regular cyclic pattern with alternating warm and cool modes every 25-30 years. The PDO has accurately matched each global climate change over the past century and may be used as a predictive tool Since the switch of the PDO from warm to cool in 1999, global temperatures have not exceeded the 1998 high. Each time the PDO has changed from one mode to another, it has stayed in the mode for 25-30 years. Since the switch of the PDO from warm to cool in 1999, it will undoubtedly stay in cool mode for another 15-20 years.

  24. Dr. Easterbrook’s Predictions

  25. Impacts of Global Cooling A recent study showed that twice as many people are killed by extreme cold than by extreme heat.

  26. Decreased food production

  27. Increase in demand for energy Inability to cope with increase in world population

  28. Dr. Easterbrook’s Conclusions: Numerous, abrupt, short-lived warming and cooling episodes, much more intense than recent warming/cooling, occurred during the last Ice Age. Climate changes in the geologic record show a regular pattern of alternate warming and cooling with a 25-30 year period for the past 500 years. Strong correlation between solar changes, the PDO, glacier advance and retreat, and global climate allow us to project a consistent pattern into the future.

  29. Projected cooling for the next several decades is based on past PDO patterns for the past century and temperature patterns for the past 500 years. Three possible scenarios: Global cooling similar to the global cooling of 1945 to 1977 Global cooling similar to the cool period from 1880 to 1915 Global cooling similar to the Dalton Minimum from 1790 to 1820 Expect global cooling for the next 2-3 decades that will be far more damaging than global warming would have been.

  30. Sources Easterbrook ,Dr. Don. Global Climate Change Resource. WWU Home Page. Updated 6/26/10 http://myweb.wwu.edu/dbunny/research/global/looming-threat-of-global-cooling.pdf Easterbrook , Dr. Don. Global Climate Change Resource. Global Warming Global Cooling. 2006 http://myweb.wwu.edu/dbunny/research/global/index.htm Easterbrook, Dr. Don. Global Climate Change Resource. Recent Global Cooling. 2006 http://myweb.wwu.edu/dbunny/research/global/glocool.htm Hoyt, Douglas V., and Kenneth H. Schatten. The Role of theSun in Climate Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hoffman, Doug L.. The Resilient Earth. Little Ice Age II, The Sequel? 2010 http://www.theresilientearth.com/?q=content/little-ice-age-ii-sequel Jefferson, Anne, Chris Rowan. Out of the Ice Age, into the Asteroid Shower. 2009 http://myweb.wwu.edu/dbunny/research/global/index.htm Lassen, K., and Friis-Christensen, E. "Variability of the solar cycle length during the past five centuries and the apparent association with terrestrial climate." Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 57, no. 8 (1995): 835. Morano, Mark. Climate Depot. Geologist 'appalled' at NYT's Krugman. Sunday, November 29, 2009 http://www.climatedepot.com/a/4140/Geologist-appalled-at-NYTs-Krugman-Legitimate-scientists-do-not-doctor-datahijack-peer-reviewsend-fraudulent-data-to-IPCC-that-is-used-to-perpetuate-the-greatest-hoax-in-history-science Schaefer, Bradley. "Sunspots That Changed the World." Sky &Telescope 43, no. 4 (1997): 34.