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Networks in Engineering. A network consists of a set of interconnected components that deliver a predictable output to a given set of inputs. Input. Output. Function. Control Systems.

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Networks in engineering

Networks in Engineering

A network consists of a set of interconnected components that deliver a predictable output to a given set of inputs.

Input

Output

Function


Control systems
Control Systems

  • A control system is characterized by an input, controller and an output. Control systems could be open-loop or closed-loop.

  • Eg : Water level control (closed-loop)

    - the objective of this system is to maintain a preset water level through a closed loop control system.


Open loop control systems
Open-loop Control Systems

  • The reference signal is directly used to compute the actuating signal.

  • There is no feedback.

  • Operating conditions are fixed and depends on calibration.

  • Not robust to perturbations.


Closed loop control systems
Closed-loop Control Systems

  • The output is fed back into the system and compared with the reference signal (input).

  • The difference in signals is used to compute an error signal

  • An actuating signal is derived from the error signal to correct the error.

  • Robust to perturbations


Positive and negative feedback
Positive and Negative Feedback

  • Closed loop systems make use of positive and negative feedback.

  • Positive feedback

    - eg: amplifiers

  • Negative feedback

    - eg: blood pressure control

Input

Input

Output

Output

Transfer Function

Transfer Function


Transfer functions
Transfer Functions

  • Control is achieved through the transfer function which determines the nature of the output.

  • Transfer functions govern the relationship between the input and output.

Input

Output

Transfer Function