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FOODBORNE ILLNESSES . Allison Fischer, Amanda Hoffman, Amy Brunner, Emily Richardson . THE PROBLEM. “Diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. World Health Organization. THE BASICS . THE STATS . Each year:

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foodborne illnesses

FOODBORNE ILLNESSES

Allison Fischer, Amanda Hoffman, Amy Brunner, Emily Richardson

the problem
THE PROBLEM
  • “Diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food.
        • World Health Organization
the stats
THE STATS
  • Each year:
    • 1 in 6 Americans get sick (48 million people)
    • 128,000 are hospitalized
    • 3,000 die
the causes
THE CAUSES

KNOWN PATHOGENS

UNSPECIFIED AGENTS

May come from the chemicals or other substances in our food

No way to prove the specific agent or track them

  • 31 know pathogens
  • Tracked by our public health systems to understand how many people they affect
the point of contamination
THE POINT OF CONTAMINATION
  • When the food is developing
  • When the food is being picked
  • When the food is being processed
  • When the food is being prepared
  • During the time between preparation and consuming
the spread
THE SPREAD
  • Outbreaks often occur with foodborne illnesses at both the local and the national level
  • Result when food is contaminated at the point of growth or packaging
  • Major outbreaks gain media attention to keep the public informed
  • Lead to recalls, consumers refusal to purchase a product and panic
the symptoms
THE SYMPTOMS
  • Vary greatly depending on:
    • Type of pathogen
    • Type of food consumed
    • Person consuming the food
  • Range in severity from flu-like symptoms to death
salmonella
SALMONELLA

SYMPTOMS

DURATION/TREATMENT

Last few days to a week

Medical attention is usually not necessary

  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever

FOUND IN

  • Meats
  • Milk
  • Eggs
e coli
E.COLI

SYMPTOMS

DURATION/TREATMENT

5 to 10 days for minor symptoms

If symptoms last longer than 2 weeks the kidneys may be in danger and hospitalization could be needed

FOUND IN

  • Stomach cramps
  • Vomiting
  • Kidney failure/death (extreme cases)
  • Undercooked beef
  • Vegetables watered with infected water
listeria monocytogenes
LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

SYMPTOMS

DURATION/TREATMENT

5 to 10 days for mild symptoms

Much longer or permanent complications

Antibiotics typically needed

FOUND IN

  • Fever
  • Muscle aches
  • Miscarriage or stillbirth for pregnant women
  • Complications in the nervous system leading to confusion, loss of balance and convulsions
  • Raw meats and vegetables
  • Processed foods (soft cheese, hots dogs, lunchmeat)
prevention
PREVENTION
  • Lobbying and advocating new laws to protect consumers
  • Research and tracking diseases
  • The FDA spends more than $1.3 billion each year to reduce foodborne illness
product loss
PRODUCT LOSS
  • Outbreaks lead to recalls where thousands of dollars worth of a product must be disposed of in order to prevent further disease
  • In major outbreaks consumers are often hesitant to purchase a product even after it has been reestablished as safe, leading to much lower profits for the companies
medical
MEDICAL
  • Medications
  • Hospital bills
  • Decreased income due to inability to work while ill
  • Costs of death
at risk
AT RISK
  • The elderly
  • Pregnant women
  • Immune-compromised individuals
  • Children (especially under the age of 5)
prevention program focus
PREVENTION PROGRAM FOCUS
  • Care takers and parents of the at risk populations
  • The at risk populations themselves
  • Food service workers
  • All consumers
four focus areas
FOUR FOCUS AREAS
  • Clean
  • Separate
  • Cook
  • Chill
clean
CLEAN!
  • Personal hygiene is key
      • Hand washing after changing diapers or using the bathroom to limit spread of fecal matter
    • Keep pets (and their food bowls, toys, liter boxes) away from food preparation
  • Keep counters and refrigerator clean and free of mold
seperate
SEPERATE!
  • Keep raw meat, poultry and seafood away from other foods
  • Thoroughly wash hands, utensils and cutting boards before touching another food
  • Never put cooked food back onto the plate it was on when raw
  • Use different sponges, clothes and towels in cleaning
slide24
COOK!
  • Cooking foods is the best way to rid them of any pathogens
  • Most people use visual clues to determine when food is adequately cooked, but this is not always the safest method
  • Thermometers should always be used to check the internal temperature of meat
  • All leftovers should be reheated to 165°F
chill
CHILL!
  • Foodborne illness from improper cooling and thawing is relatively rare, but still does occur
  • Leftovers from restaurants should be refrigerated within two hours
  • Foods should be thawed in the refrigerator, in cold water or in the microwave
pay attention be smart
PAY ATTENTION, BE SMART
  • Take advantage of new packing technology (vacuum sealing and flash freezing)
  • Throw away foods past the “sell by” date on the container
  • At risk groups may want to take prebiotics and probiotics
  • Educate yourself and ask questions to doctors, nurses or health educators if you are unsure of something
suprises
SUPRISES
  • The costs of foodborne illness are extreme
    • Even the $1.3 billion given by the FDA for prevention is not enough
  • The actual number of foodborne illness cases is much higher than the statistics report
    • People do not go to the doctor
    • Doctor does not test for foodborne illness
    • Symptoms clear up before a proper diagnosis can be made
what more can we do
WHAT MORE CAN WE DO?
  • EDUCATE, EDUCATE, EDUCATE!!
references
REFERENCES
  • CDC estimates of foodborne illness in the united states. (2011, February). Retrieved
  • from http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/PDFs/FACTSHEET_A_FINDINGS.pdf
  • Diagnosing and treating foodborne illness. (2012, January 24). Retrieved from
  • http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/facts.html
  • Food safety and foodborne illness. (2007, March). Retrieved from
  • http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs237/en/
  • Linscott, A. J. (2011). Food-borne illnesses. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter, 33 (6),
  • 41-45.
  • McCabe-Sellers, B.J. & Beattie, S.E. (Nov 2004). Food safety: emerging trends in
  • foodborne illness surveillance and prevention. Journal of the American
  • Dietetic Association, 104(11),1708-1717. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2004.08.028
  • Medeiros, L.C., Hillers, V.N., Kendall, P.A. & Mason, A. (2001). Food safety education:
  • what should we be teaching to consumers? Journal of Nutrition Education, 33(2),
  • 108-113.
  • Pelton, S. I. (2011). Watch for foodborne illness. Pediatric News, 45 (7), 4.
  • Pigott, D. C. (2008). Foodborne illness. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America,
  • 26 (2). Medical Letter on the CDC & FDA. (2010). U.S. Food and drug
  • administration; foodborne illness costs nation $152 billion annually. MLCF, 26.
  • Puzo, D. P. (1997). USDA estimates financial costs of foodborne illness. Restaurants
  • and Institutions, 107 (16), 80.
  • Weber, C.J. (April 2005). Update on foodborne diseases. Urologic Nursing, 25(2), 126-
  • 128.