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Liberalism in Western Europe. Lecture 11. Variations on a Liberal Theme. One Might Say that Liberalism on a Global Scale, as Embodied in the UN, Has Not Successfully Transformed International Politics.

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Variations on a liberal theme
Variations on a Liberal Theme

  • One Might Say that Liberalism on a Global Scale, as Embodied in the UN, Has Not Successfully Transformed International Politics.

  • The Liberal Vision Designed and Implemented at the End of World War II Was a Victim of Realism

    • The Cold War

    • North-South Conflict

  • Can Liberalism Work in Less Than Global Contexts?

The transformation of western europe
The Transformation of Western Europe

  • From 1865 to 1945 Western Europe Was Either Preparing for or Engaging in War.

  • In 2001 It Is Hard to Imagine Any Scenario in Which West European Governments Go to War Against Each Other.

  • Thus, During Last Fifty Years International Politics in Western Europe Have Been Profoundly Transformed

  • How Do We Explain This Transformation?

    • Liberals Versus Realists.

The marshall plan 1947 1952
The Marshall Plan, 1947-1952

  • U.S. Concern: Economic deprivation likely to lead to growing support for Communist Parties in France, Italy

  • Solution: Aid Oriented Toward Economic Reconstruction

  • Condition: Intra-European Cooperation—The OEEC.

George C. Marshall

The schuman plan 1950
The Schuman Plan, 1950

  • Problem: Who Would Get German Ore and How Much Steel Would Germany Be Allowed to Produce?

  • Solution: A Common Authority Governing Coal and Steel Production in Germany, France, Benelux, and Italy

  • The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

Robert Schuman

The treaty of rome 1957
The Treaty of Rome, 1957

  • Creation of Common Institutions

    • European Commission

    • Council of Ministers

    • European Court of Justice

    • European Parliament

  • Focus on Economic Integration, Particularly Creation of a Customs Union.

Jean Monnet

Widening membership
Widening Membership

  • Original 6: France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands

  • 1972: Britain, Denmark, and Ireland Join.

  • 1985-6: Greece, Spain, and Portugal Join.

  • Early 1990s: Austria, Sweden, and Finland Join

  • Currently: “Eastern Enlargement”

  • From 6 to 15, Perhaps to 26.

Deepening of integration
Deepening of Integration

  • Completion of the Customs Union in 1972.

  • Creation of Single Market in 1992.

  • Creation of Monetary Union in 1999.

  • Introduction of Single Currency (the Euro) in 2002.

The eu embedded in wider institutional framework
The EU Embedded in Wider Institutional Framework

The “Atlantic Community”

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

    • “Keep the United States in, Keep the Soviet Union out, and Keep the Germans Down.”

    • NATO Solved the Security Dilemma Caused By German and Soviet Power.

  • Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

    • Origins lie in Marshall Plan (OEEC), focus on economic cooperation

    • Fostered Economic Cooperation Between EU, U.S., Japan

Atlantic community embedded in international institutions
Atlantic Community Embedded in International Institutions

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

  • Bretton Woods

  • The United Nations

  • In Short, International Politics, Both Economic and Security, in Western Europe Became Highly Institutionalized.

Integration and the liberal peace in europe
Integration and the Liberal Peace in Europe

Three Problems Needing Solutions:

  • 1. Pervasive Distrust—Particularly France and German Rivalry.

  • 2. Economic Deprivation and Scarcity

  • 3. Political Instability

  • Process of European Integration Helped “Solve” these Problems.

Eu institutions
EU Institutions

  • Created a stable framework for repeated interaction.

  • Helped Transform Franco-German Relationship from Hostility, Suspicion, and Distrust into Friendship and Cooperation.

  • Framework was used to Promote Economic Integration.

Economic integration
Economic Integration

  • Opening of National Borders to Flows of People, Goods, and Capital.

  • Created the Most Highly Integrated Regional Economic System in the World.

  • Created Clear Economic Benefits for all Member Countries.

  • EU Framework Ensured that these Benefits were Reasonably Equitably Distributed.

  • Thus, all Governments had a Stake in Supporting Integration.

Democracy and political stability
Democracy and Political Stability

  • Postwar Prosperity Generated By Economic Integration Stabilized Democratic Political Systems.

  • Democratic Politics Distributed Prosperity Relatively Equitably Within Countries.

  • People, therefore, had a Stake in Economic Integration.

  • Equitable Income Distributions Further Stabilized Democratic Politics.

The virtuous cycle
The Virtuous Cycle

Integration Delivered Prosperity and Political Stability.

Prosperity and Political Stability Stimulated Further Integration.

Further Integration generated Yet Greater Prosperity and Further Stabilized Political Systems.

The realist critique or why we will soon miss the cold war
The Realist Critique(or, “Why We Will Soon Miss the Cold War”)

  • Liberalism is a “shallow construct” that stands up to “neither logical nor historical analysis” (John Mearsheimer).

    Realism Caused Peace in Postwar Europe

  • Bipolarity

  • Nuclear Weapons

  • Need to Maintain Alliance Solidarity.

  • In Other Words, Peace a Product of Cold War.

    After the Cold War, Europe Will Fall Apart

  • Shift to Multipolar System, which is Less Stable

  • No Need to Maintain Alliance Solidarity.

  • Result in More Fluid and Less Secure State System.

So what
So What?

  • Provides Clues about Causes of War and Peace Elsewhere.

    • War is Less Likely Where the Conditions We See in Europe are Present, and More Likely Where These Conditions Are Absent.

  • Can the European Transformation be Replicated?

    • Is Postwar Europe a Model that Can Be Applied to Conflict in Other Parts of the World Such as the Former Yugoslavia or Africa?