ELEC 4600 RADAR & NAVIGATION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ELEC 4600 RADAR & NAVIGATION

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  1. ELEC 4600RADAR & NAVIGATION Lecturer: R. Edwards

  2. COURSE OUTLINE

  3. RADAR & NAVIGATION • Engineering is Applied Science • Many areas of science and mathematics are applied to solve the problems associated with Radar and Navigation

  4. RADAR & NAVIGATION • Some examples are: • Antennas • RF circuit design • Plane geometry • Spherical geometry • Probability and statistics • DSP – discrete-time signal processing • Orbital mechanics • Matrix algebra

  5. NAVIGATION • The first half of the course will cover NAVIGATION, in particular, • aircraft navigation

  6. NAVIGATION • The science of determining the position of a vehicle relative to the position of its destination

  7. NAVIGATIONCourse Outline (1) • Basic Information • Units and Conventions • Lines of Position and Position Fixes – Geometry • Requirement for air navigation systems • Relative Navigation Systems • NDB/ADF (Non-Directional Beacon/Automatic Direction Finder) • VOR (VHF Omnirange) • TACAN • DME

  8. NAVIGATIONCourse Outline (2) • Absolute Navigation Systems • Multi-DME • LORAN-C • GPS • INS • Navigation Fundamentals • Position Fix Transformations • Dead-Reckoning Calculations • Most Probable Position Calculations • Course Line Computations

  9. Navigation • International – ICAO • National – FAA/Nav Canada, Transport Canada/CAA • Industry – ARINC/RTCA Organizational Framework (The players in the game)

  10. International • An organization of the United Nations • Responsible for recommending standards for civil aviation systems and procedures • (SARPs STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PROCEDURES) • NOTE: Responsibility for implementation rests with individual countries. • Countries may elect not to follow recommended procedures and if they do so will file an exception • ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization)

  11. National • USA - FAA • Canada – Transport Canada and Nav Canada • Transport Canada (government) • Develops and Enforces Rules and Regulations • Nav Canada (not-for profit) • Installs/maintains navigation aids and air traffic radars • Operates air traffic control system

  12. Industry • ARINC (Aeronautical Radio Incorporated) • Develops standards for interchangeability of avionics equipment • Equipment chassis, mounting racks and and connectors (ATR • Digital Data bus standards (ARINC 429, 469)

  13. Industry • RTCA (Radio Technical Committee for Aeronautics) • Made up of representatives from avionics and airline industries and government agencies • Develops functional specifications for avionics equipment • NOTE: FAA usually uses RTCA documents form basis of certification of equipment

  14. NAVIGATIONUnits and Conventions • Distance: Nautical Mile (NM) = 1832m exactly • Speed: Knot (kt) – 1 NM/hour • Angle: degrees measured Clockwise from North and is always expressed as three digits e.g. 090, 006. Note: zero is pronounced zero

  15. North • Two main North references: • True (T) : the geographical North Pole(the point at which the earth’s spin axis intersects the earth’s surface in the Northern hemisphere) • Magnetic (M) : the North magnetic pole • VARIATION is the differencebetween True and Magnetic North

  16. North Conversion from Magnetic to True and Vice Versa Variation is usually given as West or East depending on whether the Magnetic Pole appears to be West or East of the True Pole East Variation is considered positive (+) True direction = Magnetic direction + Variation

  17. Magnetic and True North MAG TRUE 14 VARIATION

  18. Pole Migration

  19. Units and Conventions (Continued) • Heading: The angle between the longitudinal axis of a vehicle and the North reference (can be either Magnetic or True) • Relative Bearing: The angle between the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and a line joining the vehicle and the point in question

  20. Units and Conventions

  21. Lines of Position Navigation

  22. Position Fix Navigation

  23. Position Fix Geometry Navigation

  24. Requirements for an Air Navigation System Accuracy(Allowable Error) Integrity Availability Continuity These all depend on the phase of flight

  25. Phases of Flight • Enroute – least restrictive • Usually at cruising altitude - no obstaclesstable situation, no conflicting traffic • Terminal Area – more restrictive • Lower altitude – possible obstaclesless stable situation, probable conflicting traffic • Approach and Landing – most restrictive • Very low altitude – obstacles present • on collision course with the ground - must make sure it is the runway!!

  26. Accuracy • Two main types of ERROR • Flight Technical ErrorThe difference between the actual position of the aircraft and the • System Error

  27. Requirements for Accuracy (95%) • Enroute • 12.4NM (Oceanic), 2.0 NM (Continental) • Terminal Area • 0.4 NM • Landing • Category I (Limits of 200Ft ceiling and ½ NM visibility) • 16. m laterally and 8 m vertically

  28. Integrity • The ability of the system to warn the pilot when an out-of-tolerance condition is detected • Enroute • 5 minutes • Terminal Area • 30 seconds • Landing • Category I - 6 seconds • Category II and III – 1 second

  29. Availability • The probability that the required navigation is usable • All Modes • .99 to .99999

  30. Continuity • The probability that the required navigation is available for the duration of a procedure once the procedure has been started • Enroute/Terminal • 10-5/hr • Landing • 10-6/15sec (Cat I)