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Chap1: Intro to SAD. Chapter Objectives. Discuss the impact of information technology on business strategy and success Define and describe an information system components Use profiles and models to understand business functions and operations

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chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • Discuss the impact of information technology on business strategy and success
  • Define and describe an information system components
  • Use profiles and models to understand business functions and operations
  • Explain how the Internet has affected business strategies and relationships
  • Identify various types of information systems and explain who uses them
chapter objectives1
Chapter Objectives
  • Explain systems development tools, including modeling, prototyping, and CASE tools
  • Distinguish between structured analysis and object-oriented methodology
  • Describe the systems development life cycle
  • Discuss the role of the information technology department and the systems analysts who work there
introduction
Introduction
  • The use of information
    • as a weapon in the battle
      • increase productivity,
      • deliver quality products and services,
      • maintain customer loyalty
      • make correct/strong decisions
  • IT can mean the difference between success and failure
the impact of information technology
The Impact of Information Technology
  • Definition: Information Technology (IT)
    • Combination of hardware and software products and services that companies use to manage, access, communicate, and share information
    • A vital asset that must be
      • used effectively,
      • updated constantly
      • safeguarded carefully
the impact of information technology1
The Impact of Information Technology
  • The Future of IT
    • Accounted for almost 30 percent of economic growth in 2003
    • Online population worldwide increased 106 percent between 2000-2004
    • 305.5% usage growth 2000-2008

Note: http://www.internetworldstats.com/

the impact of information technology2
The Impact of Information Technology
  • The Role of Systems Analysis and Design
    • Definition: Systems Analysis and Design
      • Step-by-step process for developing high-quality information systems
    • Systems Analyst (SA)
      • Plan, develop, and maintain information systems
the impact of information technology3
The Impact of Information Technology
  • Who Develops Information Systems?
    • In-house applications
    • Software packages
    • Internet-based application services
    • Outsourcing
    • Custom solutions
    • Enterprise-wide software strategies
    • How versus What – how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to do = high risk
information system components
Information System Components
  • A system is a set of related components that produces specific results
  • A mission-critical system is one that is vital to a company’s operations
    • Business cannot be done without it
information system components1
Information System Components
  • 1) Hardware – consist of everything in the physical layer of the information system
    • Servers, workstations, networks, telecommunications equipment, etc
  • 2) Software – program that control the h/ware and produce the desired result
    • System software – manage h/ware component (e.g. Win XP)
    • Network operating system – (e.g. Win 2003 Server, Unix, etc)
information system components2
Information System Components
  • Application software – consist of program that support day-to-day business functions
  • Enterprise applications – order process system, payroll system, financial system
  • Horizontal system – inventory or payroll application (e.g. standard payroll system that able to use by all companies)
  • Vertical system – design to meet unique req. of a business (e.g. special IS that serves to meet unique business req.)
information system components3
Information System Components
  • 3) Data
    • Is the raw material that an information system transforms into useful information
    • Tables
    • Linking
information system components4
Information System Components
  • 4) Processes
    • Define the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results
  • 5) People (Stakeholder)
    • Users, or end users, are the people who interact with an information system, both inside and outside the company
understanding the business
Understanding The Business
  • Business Profile – describe company overall function
    • Organization, processes, services, products, customers, suppliers, competitors, constraints, future direction
    • SA investigates company’s products, services, Internet opportunities
understanding the business1
Understanding The Business
  • Business Models – purpose: make it easier for manager and system analyst to understand day-to-day business operation
    • Business models – a framework in creating value (e.g. selling computer – Dell)
    • Business process – specific (tasks|processes) that involved in creating value
    • BPR (business process reengineering) – trying to simplify current processes or reduce cost
understanding the business3
Understanding The Business
  • New Kinds of Companies
    • Product-oriented – routers, microchips
    • Service-oriented – resellers and providers of information
    • Brick-and-mortar – conduct business from physical locations (have premises)
    • Dot-com (.com) or Internet-dependent
      • Amazon.com, Google, eBay, Yahoo!
impact of the internet
Impact of the Internet
  • E-Commerce (I-Commerce)
    • B2C (Business-to-Consumer)
    • B2B (Business-to-Business)
      • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), XML, HTML
  • Web-Based Development Solutions
    • IBM WebSphere Modeler, Microsoft .NET
    • Web services
      • Developed by 3rd party developer but included as part of the IS
how business uses information systems
How Business Uses InformationSystems
  • IT managers divided systems into categories based on the user group the system served
    • Office systems
    • Operational systems
    • Decision support systems
    • Executive information systems
how business uses information systems type of is
How Business Uses Information Systems (type of IS)
  • Today, it makes more sense to identify a system by its functions, rather than by users
    • Enterprise computing systems – support company-wide operation and data mgt req.
    • Transaction processing systems – data generated by day-to-day operations
    • Business support systems – provide job-related information to users at all levels of a company
    • Knowledge management systems – expert system, combine knowledge base and inference rule
    • User productivity systems – email, voice mail, fax, etc
how business uses information systems type of is1
How Business Uses Information Systems (type of IS)
  • Enterprise computing systems
    • Support company-wide operations and data management requirements
    • Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
how business uses information systems type of is2
How Business Uses Information Systems (type of IS)
  • Transaction processing systems (TPS)
    • Efficient because they process a set of transaction-related commands as a group rather than individually
how business uses information systems type of is3
How Business Uses Information Systems (type of IS)
  • Business support systems
    • Provide job-related information to users at all levels of a company
    • Management information systems (MIS)
    • Radio frequency identification (RFID)
    • What-ifanalysis
      • e.g: What will happen if fuel price continues decreasing?

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how business uses information systems type of is4
How Business Uses Information Systems (type of IS)
  • Knowledge management systems
    • Called expert systems
    • Simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules
    • Many use fuzzy logic and neural network

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how business uses information systems type of is5
How Business Uses Information Systems (type of IS)
  • User productivity systems
    • Technology that improves productivity
    • Groupware
  • Information systems integration
    • Most large companies require systems that combine transaction processing, business support, knowledge management, and user productivity features
      • Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
information system users and their needs
Information System Users and Their Needs
  • A SA must understand the company’s organizational model in order to recognize who is responsible for specific processes and decisions and to be aware of what information is required by whom
information system users and their needs1
Information System Users and Their Needs
  • Top managers – develop long range plans called strategic plans, define the company overall mission and goals (SISP)
  • Middle Managers and Knowledge Workers

- just below the top level, provide direction, resources and performance feedback to teams and supervisors

  • Supervisors and Team Leaders – carry out day-to-day functions and oversee operational employees
  • Operational Employees – users who rely on TPS to enter and receive data
systems development tools and techniques
Systems Development Tools and Techniques
  • SA must know how to use a variety of techniques such as modeling, prototyping, and computer-aided systems engineering tools to plan, design, and implement information systems
  • SA work with these tools in a team environment
systems development tools and techniques1
Systems Development Tools and Techniques
  • Modeling
    • Used to describe and simplify an IS:
    • Business or requirements model – information that a system must provide
    • Data model – data structures and design
    • Object model – consist of data and process
    • Network model – design and protocols of telecomm. links
    • Process model – logic that programmers use to write code modules
systems development tools and techniques2
Systems Development Tools and Techniques
  • Prototyping
    • Definition: an early working version of an IS
    • Adv: Speeds up the development process
    • Disadv: Important decisions might be made too early, before business or IT issues are thoroughly understood
    • Can be an extremely valuable tool
systems development tools and techniques3
Systems Development Tools and Techniques
  • Computer-Aided Systems Engineering (CASE) Tools
    • Framework for systems development and support a wide variety of design methodologies
    • CASE tools – make easier to built an information system, boost IT productivity and improve the quality of the finished product.
    • Upper CASE – (conceptual|logical) design
    • Lower CASE – physical design
systems development methods
Systems Development Methods
  • Structured analysis and object-oriented analysis are both popular methodologies for developing computer-based information systems
  • A SA should understand the alternative methodologies and their individual strengths and weaknesses
systems development methods1
Systems Development Methods
  • Structured Analysis
    • Uses a set of process models to describe a system graphically
    • Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
systems development methods2
Systems Development Methods
  • Object-oriented (O-O) analysis
    • O-O analysis combines data & processes into objects
    • Object is a member of a class
    • Class is a collection of similar objects
    • Objects possess properties
    • Methods change an object’s properties
    • Messages request specific behavior or information from another object
systems development methods3
Systems Development Methods
  • Joint Application Development and Rapid Application Development
    • JAD – Team based fact finding
    • RAD – compressed version of the entire process
  • Other development methodologies
    • Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF)
    • Spiral Model
    • Extreme Programming
    • RUP
the systems development life cycle
The Systems Development LifeCycle
  • SDLC used to plan and manage the systems development process
  • It includes the following steps:
    • Systems planning phase
    • Systems analysis phase
    • Systems design phase
    • Systems implementation phase
    • Systems operation, support, and security phase
    • Deliverable or end product
the systems development life cycle1
The Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Traditionally pictured as a waterfall model, but is also presented as an interactive model depicting real world practice and the constant dialog among users, managers, and systems developers
the systems development life cycle2
The Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Systems Planning
    • To identify the nature and scope of the business opportunity or problem
    • Systems request – begins the process & describes problems or desired changes
    • Systems planning includes preliminary investigation whose key part is a feasibility study
    • End product: Preliminary Investigation Document, Software Development Plan (SDP)
the systems development life cycle3
The Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Systems Analysis
    • To build a logical model of the new system
    • First step is requirements modeling, where you investigate business processes and document what the new system must do
    • End product: system requirements document
the systems development life cycle4
The Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Systems Design
    • Purpose is to create a blueprint that will satisfy all documented requirements
    • Identify all outputs, inputs, and processes
    • Avoid misunderstanding through manager and user involvement
    • End product: systems design specification
the systems development life cycle5
The Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Systems Implementation
    • New system is constructed
    • Write, test, & document programs
    • File conversion occurs
    • Users, managers, IT staff trained to operate and support the system
    • Systems evaluation performed
the systems development life cycle6
The Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Systems operation, support, and security
    • New system supports operations
    • Maintenance changes correct errors or meet requirements
    • Enhancements increase system capability
    • Well-designed system will be secure, reliable, maintainable, and scalable
    • SDLC ends with system replacement
systems development guidelines
Systems Development Guidelines
  • Planning
  • Involve users throughout the development process
  • Listening is very important
  • Create a time table with major milestones
  • Identify interim checkpoints
  • Remain flexible
  • Develop accurate cost and benefit information
information technology department
Information Technology Department
  • The information technology (IT) department develops and maintains a company’s information systems
  • The IT group provides technical support
information technology department1
Information Technology Department
  • Application Development
    • Team may include users, managers and IT staff members
  • Systems Support and Security
    • Provides hardware and software support
  • User Support
    • Provides users with technical information, training, and productivity support
    • Help desk
information technology department2
Information Technology Department
  • Database Administration
    • Database design, management, security, backup, and user access
  • Network Administration
    • Includes hardware and software maintenance, support, and security
  • Web Support
    • Design and construction of Web pages and presence
    • Important for e-commerce
    • Webmaster
the systems analyst position
The Systems Analyst Position
  • A systems analyst investigates, analyzes, designs, develops, installs, evaluates, and maintains a company’s information systems
  • On large projects, the analyst works as a member of an IT department team
  • Smaller companies often use consultants to perform the work
the systems analyst position1
The Systems Analyst Position
  • Responsibilities
    • Translate business requirements into practical IT projects to meet needs
  • Required Skills and Background
    • Solid communication skills and analytical ability
the systems analyst position2
The Systems Analyst Position
  • Certification
    • Professional credential
  • Career Opportunities
    • Job titles
    • Company organization
    • Company size
    • Corporate culture
    • Salary, location, and future growth
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • IT is a combination of hardware and software that support business
  • The essential components of an information system are hardware, software, data, processes, and people
  • Companies are product-oriented, service-oriented, or a combination of the two
chapter summary1
Chapter Summary
  • Organization structure usually includes levels. Each level has different responsibilities and information needs
  • Systems analysts use modeling, prototyping, and CASE tools. Modeling produces a graphical representation of the process, prototyping involves creation of an early working model, and CASE tools assist in various systems development tasks
chapter summary2
Chapter Summary
  • The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) consists of five phases: systems planning, systems analysis, systems design, systems implementation, and systems operation, support, and security
  • Systems analysts need a combination of technical and business knowledge, analytical ability, and communication skills
  • Chapter 1 Complete