Syllable. What is a syllable?. A syllable is a word or part of a word that has only one vowel sound . All words have at least one syllable. Every syllable has one vowel sound. A syllable may or may not contain any consonants.
What is a syllable? • A syllable is a word or part of a word that has only one vowel sound. • All words have at least one syllable. • Every syllable has one vowel sound. • A syllable may or may not contain any consonants. • When we talk about the number of the syllable the sound which is produced is important. • Note: Suprasegmental features (stress, tone…) affect all the segments of a syllable.
Some rules about syllables: • A single consonant between two vowels goes with the second vowel if the first vowel is long (vc/v).Example belong • A single consonant between two vowels goes with the first vowel if the first vowel is accented and short (vc/v). Example guitar • Two or more consonants between vowels are divided if the first vowel is not long. • Prefixes and suffixes usually form separate syllables. Examples unkind and kindly • Never divide two vowels next to each other if they carry one sound. Example bread.
A syllable consist of an onset and a rhyme. • Rhyme consist of two parts, nucleus and a (coda).
Onset The beginning sounds of the syllable; the ones preceding the nucleus. These are always consonants in English. The nucleus is a vowel in most cases, although the consonants [ r ], [ l ], [ m ], [ n ], and the velar nasal (the 'ng' sound) can also be the nucleus of a syllable. Note: Onsets are strongly preferred over codas.
Rhyme (or rime): The rest of the syllable, after the onset (the underlined portions of the words above). The rhyme can also be divided up: Rhyme = nucleus + coda
Nucleus • Is the core or essential part of a syllable. A nucleus must be present in order for a syllable to be present. • In English and most other languages, most syllable nuclei are vowels. • The English liquids [ r l ] and the nasals [ m n ] can be the nuclei of syllables under certain conditions. [ r ] can be a nucleus as easily as a vowel, in any position: the words 'bird', have [ r ] as the nucleus; in other words, there is no vowel in the pronunciation of these syllables, even though they have one in the spelling. [brd] • [ l ] and the nasals [ m n ] become syllable nuclei when they follow an alveolar consonant in the last syllable of a word. This happens in the relaxed or casual rather than very formal articulation of the word. Compare casual vs. formal pronunciations of 'button', 'bottle', 'bottom'. • Note 1: The nucleus is the most sonorant sound in the syllable. • Note 2: Consonants in codas are weakened.
English has a wide variety of syllable types: • V oh • VC at • VCC ask • VCCC asked • CV no • CVC not • CVCC ramp • CVCCC ramps • CCV flew • CCVC flute • CCVCC flutes • CCVCCC crafts • CCCV spree • CCCVC spleen • CCCVCC strength • CCCVCCC strengths
SyllabificationRules • Syllabification is the separation of a word into syllables. • Syllabification may also refer to the process of a consonant becoming a syllable nucleus. • In syllabification divide off the affixes. • When a single consonant is between vowels, divide after a longvowel or after consonant if vowel is short. • Here’s something to remember: • You can’t divide a one-syllable word • Everysyllable has to have a vowel!
Types of words • Mono syllable ( A word consisits of a single syllable, like bat) • Disyllable ( A word consisting of two syllables, like father) • Polysyllable ( A word consisting of more than three syllables, like: intelligence)
Different Types of a Syllable • Open Syllable • Closed Syllable • Vowel consonant e syllable • Consonant “l-e” syllable • “r” controlled syllable • Vowel Digraph/Diphthong syllable
Open Syllable • Starts with a Consonant (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k,l, m, n p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z) • Next letter is a Vowel (a, e, i, o, u and y) • Proof: cv(consonant/vowel) • Examples: • to be try show • Note: Vowel usually has a long sound.
Closed Syllable • Starts with a Consonant (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k,l, m, n p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z) • Next letter is a Vowel (a, e, i, o, u and y) • Ends with a Consonant • Proof: CVC (consonant/vowel/consonant) Examples: Black scratch hand dress Note: In Closed Syllable Vowel is usually short. There are some exceptions: old, olt, ost…
Vowel consonant e syllable • Ends in a silent e (“e” makes no sound) • Previous vowel is a long vowel • Proof: cross out silent e Examples: Made hide rope
Consonant “l-e” syllable • This syllable has only three letters – a consonant, anland an e. • The e is silent • The consonant and thelare sounded like a blend • This syllable must be the last syllable in a multisyllabic word Examples: Stable purple bugle
“r” controlled syllable • Has to have avowel before the “r” • The “r” controls the sound of the vowel • The vowel, therefore, may not sound like you would expect it to sound. Examples: Cart fort start
Vowel Digraph/Diphthong syllable • Having two vowels making one sound is called Digraph (ai, ay, ee, ea, ie, igh, oa, ow, ui, ue, ew…) or diphthong (oi, oy, aw, ow/owl…) • First Vowelis long . • Second Vowel isusuallysilent . • Proof: vv Examples: Hair Stray Haul Note: Two vowels together are not always a vowel digraph or diphthong.
In another classification syllables are divided in to four types: Weak syllable Strong syllable Light Syllable Heavy Syllable
Weak Syllable The vowel in a weak syllableis short. Example: In the word ‘father’ ; the second syllable, which is weak, includes the vowel which is shorter and less loud than the first (and strong) syllable.
Strong Syllable Strong syllables consist of long vowels. Example; In the word ‘father’ ; the first syllable is stressed and it is the strong syllable. Note 1:The peak of the syllable determines if the syllable is weak or strong. Note 2: Strong syllables are always stressed.
Light syllable or CV A syllable with a short vowel as the nucleus and no coda (a CV syllable). Heavy syllable or CVV A heavy syllable is a syllable with a branchingnucleusor a branchingrime.
Heavy Syllable and Light SyllableAs you can see on the left side we have a heavy nucleus and on the right side we have a heavy coda.
MahyaNejadian M.A. Student in TEFL Islamic Azad University Zanjan Branch Autumn 2013