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Meat, poultry seafood. meat. The edible flesh of animals, birds and fish eaten by humans. Important part of the human diet Meat remains popular in the Australian diet. Origin of meat. People have been hunting and consuming meat for thousands of years

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  • The edible flesh of animals, birds and fish eaten by humans.
  • Important part of the human diet
  • Meat remains popular in the Australian diet
origin of meat
Origin of meat
  • People have been hunting and consuming meat for thousands of years
  • Meat has become more readily available with the introduction of farming
  • First fleet carried 2 bulls, 6 cows, 44 sheep, pig, goats and poultry and farming began in Australia
  • Now Australia is the worlds leading meat and livestock exporter, sending produce to over 100 countries
structure of meat
Structure of meat
  • Muscle fibre
  • Fatty tissue
  • bone
  • A long stiff protein that is made up of three separate molecules composed of amino acid
  • These are twisted chains
  • The more collagen the tougher the piece of meat
  • A protein found in connective tissue, similar to collagen
  • Organic compounds made up of amino acids essential for the body
  • Chemical elements of meat that dissolve when cooking
  • The distribution of fat throughout a piece of meat
  • Draw all of these elements
quality of meat
Quality of meat
  • Factors contributing to the tenderness of meat include
  • Age of animal younger are more tender as they have done less exercise
  • Part of the animal used greater muscle used the tougher the piece of meat
fat content
Fat content
  • Areas of large amounts of fat tend to be tougher than an even distrubtion
  • Older non castrated males have a stronger flavour compared to desexed males and females
treatment of animal before slaughter
Treatment of animal before slaughter
  • Stress = negative impact on meat and impacts on the aging process
treatment of carcass after slaughter
Treatment of carcass after slaughter
  • Meat must be hung straight after slaughter allowing the enzymes to soften muscle tissue
selecting meat for optimal quality
Selecting meat for optimal quality
  • The following should be considered when purchasing and storing meat
  • Meat should look moist, not dry and be bright in color
  • Should smell fresh
  • Do not purchase meat that has a strong or unpleasant aroma
  • Fresh meat dhould look and feel moist
  • Not slimy or sticky
  • Raw meat should be covered, kept away from other foods and either refrigerated or frozen
  • Do not buy meat that has been handled correctly or is room temperature
physical properties
Physical Properties
  • Physical characteristics of all meat should include specific color
  • Beef red
  • Veal pale pink
  • Pork pale pink
  • Lamb bright pink
  • Mutton dark red
chemical properties
Chemical Properties
  • Meat is an excellent source of
  • Protein
  • Iron
  • But is also high in saturated fats
tenderising meat
Tenderising meat
  • Physical
  • Dicing mincing banging
  • Chemical
  • Acid enzyme
why we cook meat
Why we cook meat
  • 1. to kill bacteria
  • 2. improving the flavour
  • 3.making it easier to chew
  • When meat is cooked the musclfibres soften
  • Permanent structural change of the protein molecules
  • Occurs by the application of heat
  • Mechanical actions
  • Additions of enzymes
  • Permanent change in the protein from a liquid to a thick mass as a result of heat or acid
maillard reaction
Maillard reaction
  • Dry heat is applied to protein and the browning in color is the result
chicken poultry
Chicken / poultry
  • Poultry can be described as all domesticated fowl
  • Chicken
  • Turkey
  • Duck
  • fowl
  • Chickens were kept in Vietnam as long as 10,000 years ago
  • Cultivated for their eggs and meat
  • Poultry industry has 2 areas
  • Breeding birds for meat and eggs
free range
Free range
  • Read article on Pg 116
  • Answer activity 7.5
  • Free range standards
  • Similar to red meat
  • Needs to be cooked due to high levels of bacteria
  • Parts of a chicken include
  • Drumstick wing thigh
  • Neck breast liver
  • Maryland neck tenderloin
cuts activity
Cuts activity
  • Go onto any chicken web site and list all cuts available
  • Protein - complete proteins
  • Iron - not as much as red meat
  • Water
  • Fat - skin very high in saturated fat
  • Different ways to cook chicken will determine the amount of saturated fat content in the meal
  • List different ways to cook chicken
important physical points
Important physical points
  • Poultry is a very good source of
  • Salmonella food poisoning
  • Avoid cross contamination
  • Avoid undercooking
  • Meat must be white when serving
  • No pink meat should be served
quality considerations of poultry
Quality considerations of poultry
  • When purchasing or cooking chickens, the following should be considered.
  • Firm and plump breast
  • Skin should not be broken or torn with no marks or bruses
  • Look and smell clean and fresh moist not dry
  • Flexible breast bone
test your knowledge
Test your knowledge
  • Answer questions on pg 119
  • Q 1 to 5
  • Seafood is the edible flesh of fish or shell fish
  • Fishing for human consumption has been practiced since prehistoric times
  • Equipment used clubs spears nets hand
  • Ancient Chinese, Persions and Egyptians all fished and even today fish is a major source of food for most nations around the world
  • Is an Island so has a wide variety of fish available
  • Seafood is a popular choice
  • As a country we catch, farm and import as many products to meet the needs of the consumers
  • There are 3 main categories of seafood
  • White fish snapper flathead
  • Oily fish tuna Salmon
  • Shell fish lobster prawns
structure of seafood
Structure of seafood
  • Why fish is so delicate…….
  • Texture is flaky
  • This is due to the way the bundles of muscle fibres are composed
  • In meat they are long and separated by connective tissue
  • In fish the fibres are shorter and separated by very thin connective tissue
structure continued
Structure continued
  • There is only a small amount of connective tissue
  • Very fragile
  • Easily converted to gelatine
  • The combination makes it easy for the flesh to fall apart
  • Firm and elastic flesh texture
  • Eyes should be shiny and bulging
  • Pleasant smell not too fishy
  • Scales should be flat and moist
  • Bright color
  • Gills should look moist and bright
  • Should appear wet
  • Seafood should be bought fresh and eaten as soon as possible
selecting buying fish
Selecting/ buying fish
  • Fish can be bought a number of ways
  • Very convenient product
  • Make a list of how seafood can be purchased
chemical properties1
Chemical properties
  • Fish is a source of
  • Protein – cpmplete source
  • Good fat – 5 % in white fish 10 – 15% in oily
  • Omega 3 fatty acids
  • Vit a, e, b group
  • Iron
  • Calcium in bones of canned fish
  • Complete activity 7.7
  • Complete activity 7.8
  • Complete fish work sheet
  • Complete test your knowledge
  • Revise end of chapter