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Jean Piaget By: Maria Renee Simon Psychology 10th grade
Personal Life • Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland on August 9, 1896. • He was the oldest child of Arthur Piaget and of Rebecca Jackson. • He died in Geneva on September 16, 1980. • He was quite independent and took an early interest in nature.
Married Life • In 1923, he married one of his student coworkers, Valentine Châtenay. • In 1925, their first daughter was born. • In 1927, their second daughter was born. • In 1931, their only son was born. • They immediately became the focus of intense observation by Piaget and his wife.
Professional Information • Swiss biologist, philosopher, and psychologist best known for his work in the area of developmental psychology. • Successively, Piaget occupied the psychology, sociology and history of science department chair at Neuchâtel from 1925 to 1929.
1st Stage of Cognitive Development • Stage Characterized by Sensory-motor (Birth-2 yrs) Differentiates self from objects. Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: • Pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise. • Achieves object permanence: In this stage the kid realizes that things continue to exist even when no longer present.
2nd Stage of Cognitive Development • Pre-operational Stage:(2-7 years) The kid learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words. Kid thinks egocentrically: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others • Classifies objects by a single feature: • Groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of color
3rd Stage of Cognitive Development • Concrete operational Stage: (7-11 years) The kid can think logically about objects and events. • Achieves conservation of number (at age 6), mass (at age 7), and weight (at age 9) • Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size.
4th Stage of Cognitive Development • Formal operational (11 years and up) The kid can think logically about abstract propositions and tests hypotheses systematically. • Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems.
Piaget’s key Ideas • Egocentrism: The belief that you are the center of the universe and everything revolves around you. Not moral "selfishness", just an early stage of psychological development. • Conservation: The realization that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different.
Exceptions to the Theory • The problem is that this scheme is too rigid. Many children manage to develop earlier than Piaget thought, and some people never attain or develop at an older age.
Influence • Piaget’s theory of cognitive development has had great influence in other studies such as: • Developmental psychology • Education and Morality • Historical studies of thought and cognition • Evolution • Philosophy • Primatology • Artificial Intelligence (AI)
The developmental process The process consisted of a cycle: • The child performs an action which has an effect on or organizes objects, and the child is able to note the characteristics of the action and its effects. • Through repeated actions, the child is able to differentiate and integrate its elements and effects.
The developmental process • At the same time, the child is able to identify the properties of objects by the way different kinds of action affects them. • By repeating this process across a wide range of objects and actions, the child establishes a new level of knowledge and insight. This dual process allows the child to construct new ways of dealing with objects.
The developmental process • Once the child has constructed these new kinds of knowledge, he or she starts to use them to create still more complex objects and actions. As a result, the child starts to recognize still more complex patterns. A new stage begins, which will only be completed when all the child's activity and experience have been re-organized on this still higher level.
Videos Piaget’s stage 4- deductive reasoning Piaget’s stage2- Lack of conservation Jean Piaget’s experiment
Bibliography: • http://www.piaget.org/aboutPiaget.html • http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html • http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/piaget.html