Chapter 18: Parallel Databases. Introduction I/O Parallelism Interquery Parallelism Intraquery Parallelism Intraoperation Parallelism Interoperation Parallelism Design of Parallel Systems. Chapter 18: Parallel Databases. Parallel machines are becoming quite common and affordable
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Design of Parallel SystemsChapter 18: Parallel Databases
Prices of microprocessors, memory and disks have dropped sharply
Recent desktop computers feature multiple processors and this trend is projected to accelerate
Databases are growing increasingly large
large volumes of transaction data are collected and stored for later analysis.
multimedia objects like images are increasingly stored in databases
Large-scale parallel database systems increasingly used for:
storing large volumes of data
processing time-consuming decision-support queries
providing high throughput for transaction processingIntroduction
Individual relational operations (e.g., sort, join, aggregation) can be executed in parallel
data can be partitioned and each processor can work independently on its own partition.
Queries are expressed in high level language (SQL, translated to relational algebra)
makes parallelization easier.
Different queries can be run in parallel with each other. Concurrency control takes care of conflicts.
Thus, databases naturally lend themselves to parallelism.Parallelism in Databases
The relations on multiple disks.
Horizontal partitioning – tuples of a relation are divided among many disks such that each tuple resides on one disk.
Partitioning techniques (number of disks = n):
Send the I th tuple inserted in the relation to disk i mod n.
Choose one or more attributes as the partitioning attributes.
Choose hash function h with range 0…n - 1
Let i denote result of hash function h applied to the partitioning attribute value of a tuple. Send tuple to disk i.I/O Parallelism
Partitioning techniques (cont.): partitioning
Choose an attribute as the partitioning attribute.
A partitioning vector [vo, v1, ..., vn-2] is chosen.
Let v be the partitioning attribute value of a tuple. Tuples such that vivi+1 go to disk I + 1. Tuples with v < v0 go to disk 0 and tuples with v vn-2 go to disk n-1.
E.g., with a partitioning vector [5,11], a tuple with partitioning attribute value of 2 will go to disk 0, a tuple with value 8 will go to disk 1, while a tuple with value 20 will go to disk2.I/O Parallelism (Cont.)
Evaluate how well partitioning techniques support the following types of data access:
1. Scanning the entire relation.
2. Locating a tuple associatively – point queries.
E.g., r.A = 25.
3. Locating all tuples such that the value of a given attribute lies within a specified range – range queries.
E.g., 10 r.A < 25.Comparison of Partitioning Techniques
Round robin: following types of data access:
Best suited for sequential scan of entire relation on each query.
All disks have almost an equal number of tuples; retrieval work is thus well balanced between disks.
Range queries are difficult to process
No clustering -- tuples are scattered across all disksComparison of Partitioning Techniques (Cont.)
Hash partitioning: following types of data access:
Good for sequential access
Assuming hash function is good, and partitioning attributes form a key, tuples will be equally distributed between disks
Retrieval work is then well balanced between disks.
Good for point queries on partitioning attribute
Can lookup single disk, leaving others available for answering other queries.
Index on partitioning attribute can be local to disk, making lookup and update more efficient
No clustering, so difficult to answer range queries
Comparison of Partitioning Techniques (Cont.)
Range partitioning: following types of data access:
Provides data clustering by partitioning attribute value.
Good for sequential access
Good for point queries on partitioning attribute: only one disk needs to be accessed.
For range queries on partitioning attribute, one to a few disks may need to be accessed
Remaining disks are available for other queries.
Good if result tuples are from one to a few blocks.
If many blocks are to be fetched, they are still fetched from one to a few disks, and potential parallelism in disk access is wasted
Example of execution skew.Comparison of Partitioning Techniques (Cont.)
If a relation contains only a few tuples which will fit into a single disk block, then assign the relation to a single disk.
Large relations are preferably partitioned across all the available disks.
If a relation consists of m disk blocks and there are n disks available in the system, then the relation should be allocated min(m,n) disks.Partitioning a Relation across Disks
The distribution of tuples to disks may be a single disk block, then assign the relation to a single disk.skewed— that is, some disks have many tuples, while others may have fewer tuples.
Types of skew:
Some values appear in the partitioning attributes of many tuples; all the tuples with the same value for the partitioning attribute end up in the same partition.
Can occur with range-partitioning and hash-partitioning.
With range-partitioning, badly chosen partition vector may assign too many tuples to some partitions and too few to others.
Less likely with hash-partitioning if a good hash-function is chosen.Handling of Skew
To create a a single disk block, then assign the relation to a single disk.balanced partitioning vector (assuming partitioning attribute forms a key of the relation):
Sort the relation on the partitioning attribute.
Construct the partition vector by scanning the relation in sorted order as follows.
After every 1/nth of the relation has been read, the value of the partitioning attribute of the next tuple is added to the partition vector.
n denotes the number of partitions to be constructed.
Duplicate entries or imbalances can result if duplicates are present in partitioning attributes.
Alternative technique based on histograms used in practiceHandling Skew in Range-Partitioning
Queries/transactions execute in parallel with one another. a single disk block, then assign the relation to a single disk.
Increases transaction throughput; used primarily to scale up a transaction processing system to support a larger number of transactions per second.
Easiest form of parallelism to support, particularly in a shared-memory parallel database, because even sequential database systems support concurrent processing.
More complicated to implement on shared-disk or shared-nothing architectures
Locking and logging must be coordinated by passing messages between processors.
Data in a local buffer may have been updated at another processor.
Cache-coherency has to be maintained — reads and writes of data in buffer must find latest version of data.Interquery Parallelism
Before reading/writing to a page, the page must be locked in shared/exclusive mode.
On locking a page, the page must be read from disk
Before unlocking a page, the page must be written to disk if it was modified.
More complex protocols with fewer disk reads/writes exist.
Cache coherency protocols for shared-nothing systems are similar. Each database page is assigned a home processor. Requests to fetch the page or write it to disk are sent to the home processor.Cache Coherency Protocol
Execution of a single query in parallel on multiple processors/disks; important for speeding up long-running queries.
Two complementary forms of intraquery parallelism:
Intraoperation Parallelism – parallelize the execution of each individual operation in the query.
Interoperation Parallelism – execute the different operations in a query expression in parallel.
the first form scales better with increasing parallelism becausethe number of tuples processed by each operation is typically more than the number of operations in a query.Intraquery Parallelism
Our discussion of parallel algorithms assumes: processors/disks; important for speeding up long-running queries.
n processors, P0, ..., Pn-1, and n disks D0, ..., Dn-1, where disk Di is associated with processor Pi.
If a processor has multiple disks they can simply simulate a single disk Di.
Shared-nothing architectures can be efficiently simulated on shared-memory and shared-disk systems.
Algorithms for shared-nothing systems can thus be run on shared-memory and shared-disk systems.
However, some optimizations may be possible.Parallel Processing of Relational Operations
Range-Partitioning Sort processors/disks; important for speeding up long-running queries.
Choose processors P0, ..., Pm, where mn -1 to do sorting.
Create range-partition vector with m entries, on the sorting attributes
Redistribute the relation using range partitioning
all tuples that lie in the ith range are sent to processor Pi
Pistores the tuples it received temporarily on disk Di.
This step requires I/O and communication overhead.
Each processor Pi sorts its partition of the relation locally.
Each processors executes same operation (sort) in parallel with other processors, without any interaction with the others (data parallelism).
Final merge operation is trivial: range-partitioning ensures that, for 1 j m, the key values in processor Pi are all less than the key values in Pj.Parallel Sort
Parallel External Sort-Merge processors/disks; important for speeding up long-running queries.
Assume the relation has already been partitioned among disks D0, ..., Dn-1 (in whatever manner).
Each processor Pi locally sorts the data on disk Di.
The sorted runs on each processor are then merged to get the final sorted output.
Parallelize the merging of sorted runs as follows:
The sorted partitions at each processor Piare range-partitioned across the processors P0, ..., Pm-1.
Each processor Pi performs a merge on the streams as they are received, to get a single sorted run.
The sorted runs on processors P0,..., Pm-1 are concatenated to get the final result.Parallel Sort (Cont.)
The join operation requires pairs of tuples to be tested to see if they satisfy the join condition, and if they do, the pair is added to the join output.
Parallel join algorithms attempt to split the pairs to be tested over several processors. Each processor then computes part of the join locally.
In a final step, the results from each processor can be collected together to produce the final result.Parallel Join
For equi-joins and natural joins, it is possible to see if they satisfy the join condition, and if they do, the pair is added to the join output.partition the two input relations across the processors, and compute the join locally at each processor.
Let r and s be the input relations, and we want to compute r r.A=s.Bs.
r and s each are partitioned into n partitions, denoted r0, r1, ..., rn-1 and s0, s1, ..., sn-1.
Can use either range partitioning or hash partitioning.
r and s must be partitioned on their join attributes r.A and s.B), using the same range-partitioning vector or hash function.
Partitions ri and si are sent to processor Pi,
Each processor Pi locally computes riri.A=si.B si. Any of the standard join methods can be used.Partitioned Join
Partitioning not possible for some join conditions see if they satisfy the join condition, and if they do, the pair is added to the join output.
E.g., non-equijoin conditions, such as r.A > s.B.
For joins were partitioning is not applicable, parallelization can be accomplished by fragment and replicate technique
Depicted on next slide
Special case – asymmetric fragment-and-replicate:
One of the relations, say r, is partitioned; any partitioning technique can be used.
The other relation, s, is replicated across all the processors.
Processor Pithen locally computes the join of riwith all of s using any join technique.Fragment-and-Replicate Join
r is partitioned into n partitions,r0, r1, ..., r n-1;s is partitioned into m partitions, s0, s1, ..., sm-1.
Any partitioning technique may be used.
There must be at least m * n processors.
Label the processors as
P0,0, P0,1, ..., P0,m-1, P1,0, ..., Pn-1m-1.
Pi,j computes the join of ri with sj. In order to do so, riis replicated to Pi,0, Pi,1, ..., Pi,m-1, while si is replicated to P0,i, P1,i, ..., Pn-1,i
Any join technique can be used at each processor Pi,j.Fragment-and-Replicate Join (Cont.)
Both versions of fragment-and-replicate work with any join condition, since every tuple in r can be tested with every tuple in s.
Usually has a higher cost than partitioning, since one of the relations (for asymmetric fragment-and-replicate) or both relations (for general fragment-and-replicate) have to be replicated.
Sometimes asymmetric fragment-and-replicate is preferable even though partitioning could be used.
E.g., say s is small and r is large, and already partitioned. It may be cheaper to replicate s across all processors, rather than repartition r and s on the join attributes.Fragment-and-Replicate Join (Cont.)
Parallelizing partitioned hash join: condition, since every tuple in
Assume s is smaller than r and therefore s is chosen as the build relation.
A hash function h1 takes the join attribute value of each tuple in s and maps this tuple to one of the n processors.
Each processor Pireads the tuples of s that are on its disk Di, and sends each tuple to the appropriate processor based on hash function h1. Let si denote the tuples of relation s that are sent to processor Pi.
As tuples of relation s are received at the destination processors, they are partitioned further using another hash function, h2, which is used to compute the hash-join locally. (Cont.)Partitioned Parallel Hash-Join
Once the tuples of condition, since every tuple ins have been distributed, the larger relation r is redistributed across the m processors using the hash function h1
Let ri denote the tuples of relation r that are sent to processor Pi.
As the r tuples are received at the destination processors, they are repartitioned using the function h2
(just as the probe relation is partitioned in the sequential hash-join algorithm).
Each processor Pi executes the build and probe phases of the hash-join algorithm on the local partitions riand s of r and s to produce a partition of the final result of the hash-join.
Note: Hash-join optimizations can be applied to the parallel case
e.g., the hybrid hash-join algorithm can be used to cache some of the incoming tuples in memory and avoid the cost of writing them and reading them back in.Partitioned Parallel Hash-Join (Cont.)
Assume that condition, since every tuple in
relation s is much smaller than relation r and that r is stored by partitioning.
there is an index on a join attribute of relation r at each of the partitions of relation r.
Use asymmetric fragment-and-replicate, with relation s being replicated, and using the existing partitioning of relation r.
Each processor Pjwhere a partition of relation s is stored reads the tuples of relation s stored in Dj, and replicates the tuples to every other processor Pi.
At the end of this phase, relation s is replicated at all sites that store tuples of relation r.
Each processor Pi performs an indexed nested-loop join of relation s with the ith partition of relation r.Parallel Nested-Loop Join
Tpart + Tasm + max (T0, T1, …, Tn-1)
r1 r2 r3 r4
Some issues in the design of parallel systems: