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Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO)
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  1. Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Revolution in Nuclear Detection Affairs April 25, 2012 Warren M. Stern Director DNDO

  2. Material Security Consequence Mgmt. Recovery Detection Interdiction Render Safe Nuclear Security “The danger of nuclear terrorism remains one of the greatest threats to global security…” President Obama, March 2012 Hankuk University, Seoul, ROK Nuclear Defense Spectrum

  3. Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA) 3 3

  4. Challenges of Nuclear Detection Energy Spectra Radiation Transmitted through Intervening Materials Radiation Emitted by Material Some materials self-shield their emitted radiation Background Radiation Sensor Detects Radiation Propagates through Environment

  5. Urban variations in background radiation Gross Counts x 104 In urban environments local variations can be large

  6. Background Challenges: Signal to Noise • Black: natural background radiation • Green : 1 mCi Cesium-137 source at 300 ft from the detector • Red: 1 mCi Cesium-137 source 150 ft from the detector Background Background + Source Background + 4*Source (or Half Distance) Can greatly impact a systems False Alarm Rate and Minimum Detectable Source Activity

  7. Very large detectors Active interrogation Quantum-dot activated scintillator and semiconductor detectors Event Bring sensor closer – distributed sensor nets 1. Get more signal with a bigger detector 2. Reduce the background 3. Make the source brighter Same source, 10 x less background (imaging or spectroscopic detector) Same source, same background, 30 times larger detector Source 10x brighter

  8. Revolution in Military Affairs Office of Net Assessments in the Office of the Secretary of Defense defines a Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA): “RMA is a major change in the nature of warfare brought about by the innovative application of new technologies which, combined with dramatic changes in military doctrine and operational and organizational concepts, fundamentally alters the character and conduct of military operations.”

  9. Revolution in Military Affairs

  10. From the laboratory to the field

  11. Revolution in technology & gamma spectroscopy “Electronics” for a 1964 gamma ray spectrometer “Output” device for 1964 gamma ray spectrometer 26,000 bytes in 1964 And an even more capable version today 32,000,000,000 bytes today And an even more capable version today

  12. Next and Future Generation Technology 12 12

  13. Technology Deployments-DHS • CBP: 1468 RPMs; 1631 RIIDS; 19432 PRDs • 60 mRPMS or mobile systems • USCG:  6,065 PRDs; 922 Handheld RIIDs • 240 Wide-Area Search Backpacks (RADPACKs),  • 8 Advanced RIIDs, • 36 Handheld Radiation Monitors (HRMs), • 12 Linear Radiation Monitors (LRMs) • TSA-VIPR:  275 PRDs; 75 RIIDs; 50 Backpacks

  14. Support to S&L and Securing the Cities • DNDO provides technical assistance and program support to state and local rad/nuc detection efforts • Mobile Detection Deployment Units • Available for S&L • Each unit has 48 PRDs; 22 Backpack Systems; RSI700 Mobile Radiation Search Systems; 8 NaI RIIDs • Securing the Cities Program (NYC-region) • more than 5,800 pieces of detection equipment • trained nearly 11,000 personnel • conducted more than a hundred drills • There is a radiation portal monitor in Georgia, deployed to scan cargo trucks at a weigh station on Interstate 20.

  15. Next Generation • The RadSeeker’s significant increase in identification capabilities over currently fielded systems is based on advanced spectrum processing and identification algorithms, coupled with a highly sensitive 1.5” x 1.5” Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3) detector. • The RadSeeker-DL is based on a modular design that has high reliability, includes a Built-in-Test (BIT) capability, and requires no calibration. • Advanced Handheld System is an HPGe spectroscopy based system in a compact and rugged Handheld package. Uses a mechanical cryogenic cooler to maintain extremely low temperatures (-170C or 100K) required for system operation; • Major Components: Cooler/Detector Assembly; Cooler Controller Module; Neutron Detector; Power Supply Multichannel Analyzer; Battery; Onboard Computer; Enclosure

  16. Long Range Radiation DetectionLimited Use Experiment (LUE) Stand-off Detection Program Stand-Off Radiation Detection System (SORDS) Roadside Tracker (RST) Single sided 1-D coded aperture with video tracking Coded Aperture Image Trailer-Mounted System Radiation Image Range Data Compton Image Dual sided 2-D coded aperture with CsI array Isotope ID Range = 25m Co-60 Overlay Color Codes • Threat – Red • Suspect – Yellow • Medical – Blue • Industrial – Purple • NORM – Green Truck-Mounted System Active mask, dual CA and CI with NaI array

  17. Advanced Radiation Monitoring Device (ARMD) Program Goals: • SrI2 and CLYC as GFM • Time to detect a 100 uCi at 10 m in 10 sec • Time to ID and locate direction: 20 sec • Directionality to < 45 deg • Compact size, low weight, moderate cost • 72 hour operation on single battery charge Strontium Iodide (SrI2) Cs2LiYCl6 (CLYC) Solid State Photo Multiplier Tube Large Area Avalanche Photo Diode Silicon Diode

  18. Intelligent Radiation Sensor System (IRSS) • Characterize the ability of a system of detectors to improve the detection, identification, and localization of threats as compared to the individual detectors • Characterize the relative importance of individual detector capabilities: NaI (2”x2”, 2”x1”), CZT (imaging and non-imaging), LaBr3 (RadSeeker) • Demonstrate search and monitoring capabilities across complex operational environments Reachback Center wireless mesh network detector node base station (optional) rad detector network device Detector PTU and Measured ‘Heat’ Map Indoor Measurement Campaign

  19. Summary • The next revolutionary technologies may change the way we deploy and operate detectors. • Research and Development supports the revolution in nuclear detection • Wider deployment of more capable detectors • Enables surge and search in response to threats or intelligence • Continued integration into an operational architecture • Continued deployments, training, and exercises • Securing the Cities • Alpha Omega 19 19